Monday, 18 March 2019

Warning : you're loosing money by not using Marketing Mix

If you have questions about marketing mix, elements, marketing mix 4ps,7ps, and marketing mix of companies like Pepsi and ought to read till the end .you will get answers in this post, warning: you're losing money by not using marketing mix.

marketing mix


 Before understanding the marketing mix, ask yourself what is marketing ?? dunno ??

simply put, marketing is action of promoting and selling products /services, it also includes market research as well as  advertising 

it is defined by AMA as "the activity, set of institutions, and process for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partnerss and society at large" 

then what is a marketing mix ?? 

Marketing Mix is a combination of factors, which can be controlled by the company to influence the customer to buy the company's product.

it is a bunch of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target.


The marketing mix is a bunch of four decisions which is required to be taken before launching any new product, these variables are known as a 4 ps of marketing

these 4 ps help the firm to make strategic decisions necessary for the smooth running of any organization, these elements are,





So lets now look each in detail,


The first thing you need if wanna start a new business is a product, therefore the product is also the first element of marketing mix, product decisions are the first decisions you need to make before making any marketing plan.

a product can be divided into three parts, which are the core product, augmented product, and tertiary product, before deciding on product components you need to ask yourself some questions

which product are you selling?
what would be the quality of your product?
which features are different from the market?
what is the use of the product?

based on these questions several decisions have to be made, these product decisions will, in turn, affect other variables of the mix

however, if the product features are not fitting in the mix, you can alter the product such that it can fit into the marketing mix 


Pricing of the product depends upon many factors and it is constantly updated, the major consideration in pricing is the costing of the product, the advertising and marketing expenses, any price fluctuations of the market

many of the factors can change separately, thus the pricing has to be such that it can bear the brunt of changes for a fixed period of time, however, if all these variables change, then the pricing of the has to be increased or decreased accordingly 

along with the above factors, there are also other things which have to be taken into account when deciding on a pricing strategy 

competition can be the best example, similarly, pricing also affects targetting and positioning of a product 

marketing mix


Place refers to the distribution channel of a product if a product is a consumer product it needs to be available as long and wide as possible, besides it, if the product is a premium consumer product it will be available in selected stores

similarly, if the product is a business product, you need a team which interacts with businesses and make the product available to them, thus the place where are the product is distributed depends upon the product and pricing decisions


It includes integrated marketing communications which includes ATL and BTL advertising as well as sells promotions, promotions are dependent lot upon product and pricing decisions 

what is the budget for marketing and advertising? which stage is the product in? if the product is completely in the market, it needs a brand, product awareness promotions

whereas if the product is existing then it will require brand recall promotions, promotions also decide the segmentation  targetting and positioning of the product, the right kind  of promotions affect all the other three variables product, price, and  place,promotion is helpful even in inflation period


The 4 ps are discussed earlier there are other 3 extended Ps are people, process and physical evidence.let's dig deep into all of them one after another

marketing mix


Of both the target market and people associated with business

though  research is important to discover whether there are sufficient people in your target market that is in demand for fixed types of products and services 

the company's employees are cruical in marketing as they are the ones who deliver the service, it is imperative to hire and train the right people to deliver superior services to clients

when a business finds a people who truely believe in the products or services that the particular business creates, it is highly likely that the employees will perform the best way they can

additionally, they will be more open to honest feedback about the business and input their own thoughts and passions which can scale and grow the business


The systems and processes of the organization affect the implementation of the service 

so you have to make sure that you have the well-tailored process in place to minimize costs 

it could be your entire sales , a pay system, a distribution system and other systematic procedures and steps to ensure a working business that is running effectively 

tweaking and enhancements can come after to "tighten up" and to minimize costs and maximize profits


In the service industries there has to be physical evidence that the service was delivered, apart from it, physical evidence pertains also to how a business and its products are perceived in the marketplace

it is physical evidence of a business's presence and establishments, a concept of this is branding. for example, when you think of fast food word comes to mind is Mcdonalds

when you think of sports name Nike and Adidas comes to mind, you immidetaly know what their presence in the marketplace, as they are generally market leaders and established physical evidence as well as in their marketing

they have manipulated their consumer perception so well to the point where their brands seem first in line when a person is asked to broadly name a brand in their niche or industry 


One of the top brands in sports and footwear Adidas has seen its share of ups and downs, it started in 1936 and it is one of the oldest brands of footwear, it faced stiff competition by Nike in 1980 but soon overcame by  targetting young customers

let's look at the 4ps 


The Adidas group has four subsidiaries, the first is its own brand name ADIDAS, Which is there in clothes as well as in customer, second is REEBOK which overtaken the Adidas and one of the leading subsidiaries in Adidas group 

third is ROCKPORT which specializes in outdoor footwear, apparel's and accessories and fourth is TAILOR MADE  which is focused on golfing clothes, equipment, out of the four reeboks is strongly followed by Adidas group

adidas have various products, of course, the main product is footwear, coming in various designs and styles, Adidas footwear is robust and athletic (well I'm not promoting it don't get me wrong), the secondary product of the Adidas is apparels and accessories

apparels like t-shirts, jackets, sweatshirts, shorts are in great demand



Adidas because of its style, design  uses skimming prices as well as competitive pricing, keeping in mind competitors like nike, Reebok and Puma, but for products which just came into the market are uniquely designed ,addidas uses skimming price

apparels uses continuously skimming price and are higher priced due to the rand equity of adidas in the apparel's market ,t he targets customer for adidas are upper middle class as well as high end customers

adidas hardly uses penetrative pricing because that will affect the brand equity 


The major way  through which adidas sold , is through retail outlets ,adidas has its own xecutive stores in which the material is provided directly from the compny, on the other hand, many multi brand showrooms will also have adidas apparels and footwears

these multibrand showrooms get the product from the distributor, and the last mode of distribution is online, the products are sold through online medium via fashion stores like and as well as 


Adidas markets through various marketing vehicles but the majority of marketing is concentrated on telivision and product placements, the creative team of adidas is known to pump adreneline to their customers through ads which are very creative and filled with energy 

this ads attract customers by sending the marketing message to the customer ,

the tagline of adidas "impossible is nothing" is in itself is a vry powerful message.

after television, the product placement is the second line of promotion for adidas , the popularity of the brand is because it ties up with top players acroos the world such as lionel messi , ronaldinho , sachin tendulkar and many others


to know about marketing mix , 4ps of the pepsi , you can visit , you will get information thoroughly

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Sunday, 17 March 2019

Secrets about the Inflation government is hiding

In this post you gonna find out information about inflation,inflation-linked bonds, what is inflation, inflation calculator, inflation projection and many such topics, so let's discuss in detail, secrets about the inflation government is hiding



Well inflation rate in economics in simple terms defined as the "General increment of price over time, resulting in the fall of the purchasing value of the money"

so the cost of living increases as the price of goods and services increase, hence inflation means your money can't buy as much as it could yesterday


Inflation is a measure of the rate at which average price level of a basket of certain goods and services increases over the period of time in a country, often expressed in percentage, it shows decreased purchasing power of a currency

then central bank of country, RBI (reserve bank of India) in case of India, takes necessary action to keep inflation in permissible measures and keep the economy running smoothly

inflation is measured in a variety of way depending upon the type of good and service considered, and its opposite of defletion when prices fall and the rate goes below zero


Imagine your grandma stuffed a 10 $ bill in her old wallet in 1975 and forgot about it, cost of gasoline at that time was 0.5 $ per gallon, means she could have bought then 20 gallons of gas with 10 $ note 

after 25 years in 2000, the price of gasoline is 1.6 $ per gallon, if she finds forgotten note in 2000, she can buy only 6.25 gallon with it, although note is same and unchanged but it lost its purchasing power by almost 69 %.

however it's not necessary that price always rises with time it may decline or remain unaltered, for instance, cost of wheat hit a highest at 11.05 $ per bushel during march 2008

by August 2016, it came down to 3.99 $ per bushel which is due to many factors such as good weather conditions led to greater productions, which means same currency note would buy lesser in 2008 and more in 2016.

this is called defletion 

inflation gives an idea or representation of a big number of goods and services over a period of time


Though it is due to the variety of factors, the main reason is rising prices, it is mainly classified into three categories: demand pull, cost push, built in

demand pull inflation occurs when overall demand of country rises rapidly than the country's production capacity, ultimately creating a demand-supply gap, which is adjusted by increasing the prices thereby reducing demand artificially

increasing money also increases inflation, more money means more the person can buy, hence it increases the demand and induces supply-demand imbalance which causes the rise of price

more money in the system can be caused by the main authority either by printing money or by giving away money this all lead to an increase in demand

cost push inflation is the result of the increase in the cost of production processes, examples include an increase in labor costs to manufacture a good or offer a service or escalation in the price of a raw material

this developments lead to higher cost for the finished product or service and contribute to inflation 

built-in inflation is the reason to adaptive expectations, as the price of goods and services escalatates, labor expects and demands costs to keep their cost of living unaltered, their escalated wages result in higher cost of good and services 


Inflation refers to overall increment in consumer price index(CPI), which is the weighted average of prices for various goods .the bunch of goods that make up the index depends upon which are think of representative of a common consumption basket

therefore depending upon the country and consumption habits of the majority of the population, the index will comprise many goods, some goods might record drop of price whereas others may increase


thus the overall value of cpi will depend on the weight of each of the goods with respect to the whole basket, annual inflation refers to the percentage change of cpi compared to the same month of the  year prior to this


Inflation-linked bonds are securities designed to help protect investors from inflation primarily issued by the sovereign government such as US and UK, IBS is indexed to inflation so that the principal and interest payments increase and decrease with the rate of inflation 

inflation is an economic term that describes the general rise in prices of consumer goods and service. to focus on real return the amount earned after adjusted for inflation, investments that target returns above the rate of inflation can protect and potentially increase investor's future purchasing power

inflation-linked bonds are designed to protect investors from the harmful impact of the inflation by contractually linking the bond's principal and interest payments to a nationally recognized inflation measure such as retail price index(RPI) in the UK.

The European harmonized index of consumer prices (HICP) Ex- tobacco in Europe and CPI in the US

An ILB's explicit link to nationally recognized inflation measure means that any escalation in price levels directly translates into higher principal values, as a hypothetical example, consider 1000 dollar 20 year US TIPS with a 2.5 % coupon, and an inflation rate of 4%

the principal on the TIPS note will adjust upwards on a daily basis to account for the 4% inflation, at maturity the principal value will be 2,208 $

while coupon rate remains fixed at 2.5 %, the dollar value of each interest payment will increase, as the coupon will be paid on the inflation-adjusted principal value

the first semiannual coupon of 1.25 % paid on the inflation-adjusted principal of 1020$ is 12.75 $ ,while the final semi-annual interest payment will be 1.25 % of the 2,208 $ .which is 27.60 $.


Inflation projection or inflation forecast is measured in terms of a consumer price index(CPI) or harmonized index of consumer prices for euro area countries, the euro area collectively and the united kingdom (UK). 

Inflation measures the general evolution of is defined as the change in prices of the basket of goods and services that are typically purchased by households.projections are based on assessments of the economic climate in individual countries and world economy

using a mixture of model-based analyses and expert judgment the indicator is expressed in annual growth rate

of India                         


Inflation calculator can help you calculate future values based on an assumption of the inflation rate, this is also helpful for retirement planning, where you might require to decide on, how much money you can live on after retirement, use the inflation calculator of below-given link


Inflation pound calculator can be found by below-given link


I don't mind going back to daylight saving time. with inflation, the hour will be the one and only thing I have saved all year

"the way to crush the bourgeoisie is to grind them in the millstones of taxation and inflation"

"Inflation is as violent as a mugger, as scary as an armed robber and as deadly as a hitman"

inflation is when you pay fifteen dollars for the ten dollar haircut you used to get for five dollars when you had those hair

it is a way to take people's wealth from them without having to raise taxes, inflation is the most universal tax of all

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Saturday, 16 March 2019

Why the world would end without STARS

The powerhouse with abundant energy, stars from what we all are made up, we all are stardust as per cosmologists and biologists, elements found in our body primarily generated within the star and other celestial structures, in this post we gonna discuss star, star facts, and star patterns, so let's talk why the world would end without stars.

As a child, we used to think star as a fixed luminous point in the night sky, which is a large, remote and incandescent body like the sun.

But as we grew up we come to know stars are huge, way bigger than the sun, though many are smaller than sun too

If there were no sun there were no earth and no organism would have existed on earth, as we get enormous energy from the sun, and also the perfect distance from the sun makes our planet full of life



A star is born when atoms of light elements are squeezed with enough pressure to undergo from nuclear fusion, all stars are a result of a balance of forces.

The force of gravity compresses interstellar gas until the fusion reaction begin. once the fusion reaction starts, it generates an outward force.

As long as the gravity and fusion force is equal the star will remain stable, clouds of gas are there in billions and trillions of galaxies like ours, these clouds are called a nebula.

The nebula is spread across several light years and contains mass enough to form millions of stars of the size equivalent to our sun and as I said many are way bigger than a sun.

Many of the nebulae are hydrogen and helium however some nebulae contain other gases and some complex molecules as well.

Heavy materials are a result of the destruction of old star known as a supernova, irregularities in the density of gas cause net gravitational pull which draws gas together.

Some astronomers think that gravitational disturbance causes the nebula to collapse, as the gases collect, they lose potential energy, which results in an increase in temperature.

As the collapse continues the temperature increases, the collapsing cloud separates into many smaller clouds each of which may eventually become a star.

The core of the cloud collapses faster than the outer parts and the cloud begins to rotate faster and faster to conserve angular momentum when the core reaches the temperature of about 2000 degrees Calvin.

Ultimately, core reaches a temperature of 10,000 degrees Kelvin, and it begins to look like a star when fusion reactions begin when it has collapsed to about 30 times that of our sun, it becomes a protostar.


The star's life cycle is determined by its mass the larger the mass the shorter its life cycle, the star's mass is defined by the amount of matter left in its nebula, the gigantic cloud of gas and dust from which it was born.

Over the period of time, the hydrogen gas is pulled together by gravity and begins to spin, as the gas spins faster it heats up and becomes as a protostar.

Eventually, the temperature reaches 15,000,000 degrees and fusion occurs in the cloud's core, the cloud begins to glow brightly, contracts a little and becomes stable it is now main sequence star and will remain in this stage. 


As the main sequence star glows, hydrogen in its core is converted to helium by fusion, when the supply begins to run out and star no longer generates heat by fusion, the core becomes unstable and contracts.

The outer shell which is still hydrogen starts to expand, as it expands it cools and glows red, the star has now reached the red giant phase, its red because it is cooler than it was in the main sequence star phase.

There is a difference in what a star might take shape after red giant phase between a low mass star and high mass star, a massive star will undergo a supernova explosion if the remnant is of 1.4 times to 3 times than sun than it will become a neutron star.

If it is more than 3 times of the sun than gravity will take over nuclear forces and it will compress to form the giant black hole that swallows any energy or matter which comes near it.


The bright star most people talk about which is near the moon is not a star, it is planet Venus, that is the second closest planet to the sun, it has changed position over the period of few years, it is clearly visible in early hours.

Venus orbits the sun nearer than the earth thus its revolution time to complete full round is 224.7 days, when it is on the far side of the sun, Venus can't be seen.

But as it comes round the sun getting closer to earth, it becomes brighter and brighter reflection from the sun,  less of the planet is seen as it gets closer to the earth 

But due to being nearer it will seem larger, as it gets closer to us it is visible in the evening, and when it passes its closest point and moves away again it is visible in the morning.

Venus's brightest point is known as its greatest illuminated extent, when it is getting closest to us, without being directly between us and the sun.

This happened on December 2 as venus's waning phase coincided with its largest disc size at this point planet is usually 25 % illuminated. 


Star patterns also known as a constellation are the patterns formed by different star groups, away from city lights on clear, moonless night, the naked eye can see 2000 -3000 stars, as you look at these stars, your mind may group them into shapes.

People and nearly every culture named them as per the shapes they saw, they even invented stories to go with them, for example, the pattern which greeks gave name Orion was also seen by the ancient Chinese.

The chemehuavi native Americans of the California desert saw the same group of stars as a line of sure-footed mountain sheep.


More accurately a group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky is called asterism, astronomers refer the constellation to the area of the sky.

The IAU divides the sky into 88 constellations with exact boundaries so every place within a space is a constellation, most of the constellations in the northern hemisphere are based on the constellation invented by ancient Greeks.

Whereas most in the southern are based on the names given to them by seventeenth-century European explorers.


You cant see millions of stars in dark night

Red is hot and blue is cool is not true for star its opposite is true 

Our sun is a dwarf star 

You can see 20 quadrillion miles at least 

Stars don't twinkle 

The sun is the closest star to us 

Stars are made of the same stuff 

Stars are in perfect balance 

Most stars are red dwarfs 

mass = colour = temprature

Most stars come in multiples 

The massive stars live shortest

As the star is near the end of its life elements like carbon, oxygen starts to form and it changes in color, shape, and size.

There are approximately 200 to 400 billion stars in our milky way.

Stars are usually 1 to 10 billion years old, some starts are as old as our universe approximately 13.8 billion years old.

Binary stars and multi-star systems are two or more stars that are gravitationally linked and rotate around each other.

A brown dwarf is formed if star cant get hot enough to reach nuclear fusion it failed to become a star but is not a planet as it doesn't glow dimly.


Midway is our galaxy in which our solar system lie, the name describe galaxy's appearance from the earth, hazy band of light is seen formed in a night sky, is formed from the stars which cannot be distracted by the naked eye. 

Our galaxy is barred spiraled galaxy with a diameter between 150,000 to 200,000 light years, it is estimated to be in number 100 to 400 billion stars and more than 100 billion planets.

Our solar system is located at 26,490 light years away from the center of a galaxy, star, and gases at a wide range of distances from the center orbits at 220 km per second.


The milky way galaxy as a whole, move at a 600 km per second, the oldest star of the galaxy is as old as our universe, seeing from the earth, an area in a milky way contains 30 constellations. 

Our nearest galaxy is Andromeda, most of the mass of our galaxy is occupied by dark matter, in addition to mass, our galaxy contains interstellar gas comprising 90 % hydrogen and 10 % helium.

With two third of the hydrogen found in atomic form and remaining one third as molecular hydrogen the mass of the gases are 10 to 15 % of the total mass.

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Thursday, 14 March 2019



greenhouse effect


The trapping of the sun's heat in the planet's lower atmosphere due to a greater transference of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface is called the greenhouse effect

So this trapping of heat warms the earth more than earth would heat without gases responsible for this, they are known as greenhouse gases

amount of greenhouse effect being observed depends upon the radiation which comes down on earth, a temperature of atmosphere and amount of greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere


Earth receives energy in the form of ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared radiation, about 26 % of the energy which earth receives is reflected back by clouds and atmosphere

19% of the energy is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds, most of the remaining is absorbed by the surface of the earth, as the surface of the earth is way cooler than that of the sun, it radiates the waves with long wavelengths than the sun radiates

most of the thermal radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and warms it, the atmosphere also gains the heat sensible and latent heat influxes

the atmosphere radiates both ways upwards and downwards, the part of the downward radiation is absorbed by the surface and it increases the temperature which could not without the atmosphere

an ideally thermal conductive body which is at the same distance as the earth is from the sun would have 5.3-degree centigrade but earth reflects 30 % of the radiation it receives 

the blackbody with such condition would have -18-degree centigrade but earth surface temperature is 14-degree centigrade


the gases in the atmosphere that absorbs the radiation are called greenhouse gases, they are largely responsible for the greenhouse effect which in turn is responsible for global warming 

the most prominent greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide. while there is an abundant amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, but it doesn't absorb infrared radiation

these greenhouse gases are produced by man-made activities such as


Fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil have become an important part of our life, they are used directly and indirectly for producing electricity as well as for transportation

when objects containing carbons burn they produce carbon dioxide, with the increase in population, number of vehicles have also increased this lead to a tremendous escalation in carbon dioxide

other than this electricity-related emissions are higher as we still depend upon coal for electricity production, although other sources are catching we are still very much dependent upon coal



Forests hold much green area of the planet, as we know plants and trees produces oxygen by intaking carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, a process by which plants prepare their food

cutting down the trees for industrialization or for urbanization let to increment of carbon dioxide, and also burning down of those cut trees led to the extra amount of greenhouse gas


Over a period of years, the world has seen a population explosion, due to which there is more demand for food, shelter, and clothes, these all led to an expansion of related industries

which eventually led to more greenhouse gases being emitted, also more population means more demand for electricity  which further causes more fossil fuel burning


Many farming activities include the use of fertilizers such as NPK and DAP, which have nitrogen and nitrogen dioxide within it, that is a major greenhouse gas


Industries which are involved in cement, fertilizers, coal mining, oil extraction causes generation of greenhouse gas, also landfills produce carbon dioxide and methane 






Greenhouse gases are those which absorbs the infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by the earth

main greenhouse gases are water vapor, nitrous oxide, co2, methane, CFCs, HFCs and ozone.the contribution of each gas is determined by the effectiveness of that gas, for example, the direct radiative effect of methane is eighty-four times more over a period of twenty years than the same amount of co2

beside from water vapor which has a residence time of about nine days, greenhouse gases take a long time to leave the atmosphere, co2 has a variable atmospheric lifetime

it is estimated to 30-85 years, it accounts for the gas which is absorbed in an ocean or in other water or vegetation, aside from purely human-produced halocarbons, most greenhouse gases have both human and natural caused sources 


Water vapor is the most potent gas present in the earth's atmosphere but its behavior is different than the others, the primary role of water vapor is not radiative aging but as a climate feedback 

that is as a response within the climate system that influences the system's continued activity, a distinction is there because the amount of water present cannot be directly modified by the human behavior but set instead by air temperature

the warmer the surface the greater the evaporation rate of a surface, increases evaporation leads to more vapor which means greater absorption of radiation


It is the most significant greenhouse gas, sources of it are a volcano, combustion, naturally decaying organic matter, and aerobic respiration by organisms

this is balanced by chemical, physical, biological processes known as sinks, which tend to remove carbon dioxide one of the biggest sinks is natural vegetation, some oceanic processes also act as a sink one of them is solubility pump another is the biological pump

anthropogenic emissions currently account for the annual release of 7 gigatons, these emissions are equal to the 3 percent of emission by natural resources

co2 has consequently accumulated in the atmosphere at the average rate of 1.4 ppm by volume per year between 1959 and 2006 and roughly 2 ppm per year between 2005 and 2018

the natural background level of co2 varies on time scale of millions of years due to slow changes in outgoing through volcanic activity 



 Methane is a second most significant greenhouse gas, radiative forcing produced per molecule by methane is greater than co2, methane is having way lower concentration as compared to co2

its concentration is measured in ppb instead of ppm it has lesser residence time than co2, natural sources of methane include tropical wetlands, oxidizing bacteria that feed on organic material, volcanos, and methane hydrates 

human activities also increase the amount of methane along with co2, the major sources are livestock, rice cultivation, burning of coal, biomass.

it is considered that some amount of increment in methane is responsible for increasing temperature by 4 to 8-degree centigrade


It is different than the naturally occurring o3 and is a result of the air pollution, the primary source is subsidence of stratospheric o3 whereas anthropologic source is photochemical reaction involving carbon monoxide 

the best estimate of radiative o3 is 50 ppb and net radiative forcing due to anthropogenic emission is approximately 0.35 watt per square meter


These gases include nitrous oxide, CFCs, HFCs, halocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide is responsible for 0.16 watt per square meter forcing while fluorinated gases are responsible for 0.34 watt per meter square 

cfc or chloroform carbons are there in refrigerators too


It's just not all about downsides, there are many positive things as well, the greenhouse effect is important because it contributes to the survival of the living organisms of earth 

without the greenhouse effect, earth's temperature of the day could have 134 and of the night could have been -153-degree centigrade, this temperature difference and value of temperature itself could have proved disastrous for many organisms

although moderate greenhouse effect is good for earth whereas escalated effect can prove damaging to living things, vector-borne diseases like dengue and malaria will be widespread in extreme temperature conditions.


Greenhouse gases are naturally produced however humans produce an additional amount of them

without greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect earth's surface temperature could have been -18-degree centigrade

earth naturally takes the half amount of carbon dioxide produced by humans

plants, soil, and water takes up co2, I f this stored for a long time than it is known as a carbon sequestration

carbon dioxide follows the cycle which is beneficial to all plants and living organisms on earth, this is known as the carbon cycle

field crop agricultural practices both emit these gases as well as remove them

carbon is stored in the soil as an organic matter providing nutrients and food for plant growth and microbes

the greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming which increases the frequency of tornados, hurricanes and wider climate change across the world

when microbes break down nitrogen in the oil to meet their nutrition demands a small number of nitrous oxides are produced

greenhouse gases from Canadian dairy cattle have decreased by 21 percent between 1990 and 2009 due to manure management 

cattle produce methane caused by fermentation that occurs in one of the four stomachs known as the men

in Canada, about 8 percent of the total greenhouse gases are made by agriculture

plant a tree or plant they remove these greenhouse gases by photosynthesis

taking public transport instead of your vehicle will decrease the emissions made by you 

all living things including us need nitrogen to build proteins

humans cannot get nitrogen directly from the atmosphere due to its chemical nature

plants have the ability to fix the nitrogen and convert it into a useful form, humans obtain nitrogen by eating plants.

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Wednesday, 13 March 2019


You gonna find out in-depth knowledge of electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic spectrum wavelengths and many such answers to your query in this post the insider's guide to the electromagnetic spectrum.


The electromagnetic spectrum is a depiction of every electromagnetic wave and their related wavelengths, for that one must know about electromagnetic waves 

what is electromagnetic wave ??

The electromagnetic wave is a huge term, it consists of many categories named gamma rays, x rays, ultraviolet, infrared, visible, microwave, radio rays.

you must be familiar with many of the above-mentioned terms such as X-RAY, microwave, and radio.

electomagnetic spectrum

from a light bulb to mobile phone waves, from X-ray machine waves to microwave oven waves all are electromagnetic waves

electromagnetic waves are basically the form of energy, they have electric and magnetic fields associated with them so they are termed as electromagnetic waves

light from the sun comes down on earth in the form of gamma rays, x rays, ultraviolet and in almost every category 


For most  history, there was belief visible light was only part of the electromagnetic spectrum, the ancient Greeks identified that light travels in the straight line and also identified some of its properties the study of the light continued between 16th and 17th century 

there was a conflict whether light is wave or particle form, the first discovery of electromagnetic radiation came from William harshel when he discovered the infrared light

the next year john ritter working on other hand found out ultraviolet rays, electromagnetic radiation was first linked to electromagnetism when ferrade first found out deflection in waves due to the presence of the magnetic field

during 1860 Maxwell developed partial differential equations of an electromagnetic field, he identified that electromagnetic waves have infinite wavelengths with all traveling at speed of light thus there was a consensus that light is a type of electromagnetic wave

in an attempt of solving  Maxwell's equations and check such low-frequency electromagnetic radiation, Henrich Hertz built an set up to generate and detect what now are called radio waves

hertz focused the waves using the lens made of tree resin and hertz similarly produced and measured properties of the electromagnetic wave, Wilhelm Longton noticed a new type of radiation emitted during an experiment with an evacuated tube subjected to high voltage

he called it X rays, in 1900 last portion of gamma rays was discovered by Paul Villard, in 1910 Henry Bragg identified gamma rays as electromagnetic radiation


Electromagnetic waves are  described by any of the following properties namely frequency, wavelength or photon energy .frequncy of spectrum varies from  2.4×1023 Hz  
of gamma rays to 1 kHz of the ionized plasma state

wavelengths are inversely proportional to frequency, a wavelength of gamma rays is very short on the other hand it can be very long almost as long as the universe 

photon energy is directly proportional to frequency so gamma rays having the highest photon energy and radio waves have the lowest photon energy 

above equations show the relationship between energy, wavelength, and speed of light 

c is a speed of light in vacuum and h is constant of a plank.

now let's look at the types of waves in detail,

Gamma radiation

gamma radiation is penetrating radiation arises from a decay of nuclei of an atom, Rutherford named it gamma rays due to its relatively higher penetration of the matter 

gamma rays are in energy from few Kev to 8 MeV, some gamma rays of the ranges 100 to 1000 Tev are observed coming from the quasar 

electromagnetic spectrum

natural resources of this radiation earth are a result of radioactive decay and secondary radiation comes from atmospheric interaction with cosmic particles some other resources are nuclear fission which shown in the nuclear reactor

some other are nuclear fusion and nuclear fusion reactor, gamma rays, and x rays are both electromagnetic waves and they overlap in spectrum 

however they are distinct by their origin unlike gamma rays, an origin of x rays are outside nuclei

this is the most energetic photons having no least defined wavelengths, it is having the highest frequency among all, in astronomy, they are important for studying high energy objects or regions

gamma rays are used highly in experiments by scientists for their penetrating ability and produced by the number of high radioisotopes

they are used for irradiation of food and seeds for sterilization and in medication, they are used for cancer therapy, gamma rays are used for diagnostic imagining in nuclear medicine

the wavelengths of gamma rays can be measured by Compton scattering

gamma rays are ionizing radiation and are biologically hazardous, due to high penetrating capacity they can damage bone marrow and internal organs, thereby posing a challenge of safeguarding our body

and require shielding made by lead or concrete


It is also ionizing and due to its high energy it can also interact with matter through Compton effect  hard X rays have shorter wavelengths then soft X rays 

as they can pass through an object without being absorbed, such as they can pass through a thickness of less than several meters of water, they are used in diagnosis in a medical field in astronomy the accretion disks around neutron stars and black holes  


It designates a band of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths from 10 nm to 400 nm, it contributes about 10 percent of the sunlight power

the biological and chemical effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, suntan and sunburn are major effects of interaction of skin and UV rays
Known as a UV ray they are longest in wavelengths, whose photons are energetic enough to ionize atoms, too much exposure to UV rays can damage living tissue, UV can also cause some objects to glow in visible light which is called fluorescence

electromgnetic spectrum

middle range UV rays can cause damage to DNA of cells and therefore responsible for skin cancer thereby putting in danger the longevity of the one, human beings, and many other organisms could have harmed a lot if the earth has been not filtering them

sun also emits hazardous UV rays, however, long wavelength and short wavelength UV rays are absorbed by nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere and middle ranged UV rays are absorbed by the ozone layer to some extent.


Above infrared in frequency comes visible light, the sun emits its maximum power through these rays, however integrating all wavelengths shows that max power is slightly higher than infrared 

the human eye is most sensitive to these waves that is the reason these rays are visible through human eyes, rainbow shows the different shades of visible light with infrared falls just below red

and UV falls just higher than the violet, visible light has a wavelength between 380 nm to 760 nm 


Infrared section of waves covers the frequencies between 300 Mhz to 400 Thz., there are three categories in it 

FAR INFRARED - From 300 GHz to 30 THz, the lower part of these  waves can also be called microwaves, waves of this range is absorbed by water in the atmosphere making it opaque

MID INFRARED - From 30 THz to 120 THz, hot objects can radiate strongly in this range, the human body radiates strongly at the lower region of this category

NEAR INFRARED - From 120 THz to 400 THz, physical processes which are relevant to this range is similar to that of the visible light, highest waves in this range can be identified by photographic films directly 

the balance between the radiated infrared and absorbed rays have a critical impact on earth's climate, infrared radiation is emitted, infrared radiation is used in industrial, scientific, military, law enforcement and medical field

it is also used in night vision devices which allows a user to observe human or animals without being detected.


This range is in between microwave and infrared until recently this was not identified, the range was rarely studied and few sources existed for the microwave energy at the high end of the band 

but applications such as imaging and communicating are now appearing scientist are also now looking to apply this technology in armed forces.


They are waves with short wavelengths, from 10 centimeters to 1 millimeter in the SHF and EHF frequency ranges, they are absorbed by antennas, they are also absorbed by polar molecules

unlike light and infrared rays, microwaves penetrate deep down and are absorbed through surfaces, this effect is used in microwave ovens to cook and also in industrial heating

Image result for microwave radiation


Radio waves are emitted and received by antennas, which consists of conductors such as resonators, in a generator of radio waves transmitter generates AC current which is applied to the antenna,

the oscillating electrons in an antenna generate electric and magnetic fields which radiates away as radio waves, radio waves are widely used to transmit information across distances in radio communication systems

they are used in radio, television, two-way radio, satellite communication, this waves are received by the receiver and demodulated to get the information, a range of wavelength is 10 m to 100000 km.

Tuesday, 12 March 2019

The only GRAVITY resource you ever need!

this post is about gravity, you gonna find information about gravity facts, gravity definition, gravity knife, and many other go on reading for five minutes if you want to be less than a Xavier in gravity if not fully.



 if you are a pro you must know the term pretty well, gravity is a natural force of attraction type, which occurs between any particles or objects having mass

So gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which everything from stars, planets to galaxies or any object having mass or energy  are attracted to each other

on earth, gravity gives weight to objects moon's gravity also causes tides and ebbs, in earlier years of its existence there were interactions among gases due to gravity, that caused compression and stars were formed due to consequential processes


so the gravity is responsible for many large scale structures of our universe
, gravity may have an infinite effect although it reduces as the distance between objects increases

let me make it to you clearer,


A formula of gravity was first given by the Newton in his law of universal gravitation, which states gravity or gravitational force between two objects having masses m1 and m2 having distance between them as R can be given by the formula


as per formula, both objects or particles whatever you take it, apply the same force on each other and that force will be directly proportional to the product of the masses of two objects here, m1.m2, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects

F1 and F2 are called gravitational forces and G is a gravitational constant 

the first test of Newton's gravitational law took place as a Cavendish experiment conducted by Henry Cavendish after 111 years of publication of the law and 78 years after the death of the Newton

this law resembles the Coulomb's law of electric force which is also inverse square law

assuming SI units f is calculated in unit NEWTON, masses are calculated in Kg, distance in meter, and G has a fixed value  6.674×10−11 N m2 kg−2 

to know more about VECTOR FORM OF THE FORMULA refer to

let's look at some astonishing gravity facts,


Your weight increases when you accelerate

without gravity, your body starts to malfunction, as you are evolution with gravity.

you will feel weightless at the center of the earth

some fishes have calcium carbonate stones in their head which shows them the way upwards

you can feel the 90 percent of the earth gravity on the international space station

gravity can bend light


quantum mechanics which tells us  how atoms and small particles interact whereas Einstein's general theory of relativity which tells us how the universe works on large scale cant be fitted together

some bacterias can grow better in microgravity

 The Moon’s gravity makes Earth’s oceans bulge

Dark energy works against gravity

extreme gravity can tear star systems to pieces

newton saw a falling apple and not hit by it as its wrongly hyped

it's actually not a force however it is perceived as the one

gravity is one directional

the range of gravity is infinite

earth's gravity is lumpy

newton and Einstein aren't the only ones who wandered about gravity

gravity travels at the speed of the light

you weigh six times on earth than you would on mars

gravity is amongst the weakest of the four fundamental forces of nature

astronauts practice the weightlessness in the plane

scientists study gravity in the cosmic laboratory

spinning creates artificial gravity

massive objects make gravity waves when they move

earth's gravity is lumpy


  • If you are a kid or you want to understand in an easy and deliberate manner read this


gravity is a force by which planet or other body draws objects towards its center, the force of gravity keeps all planets around the sun in orbit

why you come down on land and don't fly away in space when you jump, why things which you throw up come down anyway?? the answer is GRAVITY  which keeps things on a surface 

gravity or gravitational force is there among any object having mass, as the weight of an object increases gravitational force on it by other objects increases, also as the distance between two objects increases the gravity between two decreases

the gravity of earth is due to a net result of gravity of each individual particle inside, which pulls you and that is a weight of your hence if you are on the planet with more mass than earth, you will weight more

you exert the same force on earth as the earth is generating on you, but it cant be observed since the earth is way higher messy than you

the gravity of the moon causes tides and ebbs in oceans of earth, gravity makes the stars and planets by holding together its constituent particles

gravity also affects the light, which was stated by the Albert Einstein, when you flash a torch upward it will become redder due to gravity you cant observe it however scientists can measure it

BLACKHOLE can pack so much in small space that it has almost infinite gravity such that it cant let light escape.

gravity is what holds planet and earth at proper distance so as to flourish organism and plants, it also holds the atmosphere from which we breathe. in short, it holds the world around us.


gravity is not same all over the earth, it more where there is more mass underneath like at the equator and its less where mass is less.


Gravity bong also sometimes termed as GB, or geebie is a method of consuming smokable substances such as cannabis the term describes both waterfall bong and smoke bong since both use air pressure and water to draw bong

a bucket bong is made  of two containers, the larger top container is filled with water, smaller has  connected bowl and open bottom and the smaller is placed into bigger

once the bowl is lit, the operator must move the smaller container up, causing a pressure difference, smoke slowly feels the jar until the user removes the bowl and inhales the contents. a waterfall bong is made up of one container

a container must have the bowl and a small hole near the base so the water can drain easily, as the water flows out of the container, air is forced through the bowl and causes the substance to burn and accumulate the smoke in a bong 



Construction of a bucket bong calls for a large container or a bottle which can contain huge water and which is a bottle, a hex bit socket used as a bowl an aerator screen that cut to fit the bowl, a large bottle or container

the large plastic bottle's base is cut off and bottle's cap has a hole in the center, which will eventually hold the bowl and large bottle or container., the screen is placed inside the bowl the cut nozzle is connected into the hole outside the cap

a cap is packed with the smokable substance and screwed onto the bottle once it is immersed to a neck in the bottle, while lightning the bowl with match the bottle is gradually lifted until it is about to come out of water

while the bottle is held in place a lid is removed, the user's mouth is placed above the opening and the user inhales as the bottle is pushed back down the water


It is another method of smoking in which a large plastic bottle, a rubber stopper, a brass cut nozzle to act as a bowl and keep the marijuana from entering and aerator screen 

once the bottle is filled to its neck in water the lid is screwed on, removing the rubber stopper and igniting the contents of the bowl leads to draining water to cause smoke drawn into the bottle 


You will be surprised to see this title if you are unaware of the word, so let me tell you in detail what it is actually I just came to know about it, just a few hours before writing this line.

it is javascript based search engine trick that googles programmed in 2009, it may or might not work on your computer, because of changes in google's reprogrammed search page now let's see how to do








A gravity knife is a knife in which blades are contained within the handle and blades of which opens due to force of gravity, the advantage of this type of opening is it only need one hand 

so one can open it when another hand is occupied, a major use of it found out in parachuting to cut parachute while tangled in the tree

gravity knife uses fulcrum lever, button or trigger to release the blade from the closed position, it may use the side folding or telescopic blade


One of the most famous knives in the world war 2 knife or a German airforce knife, which utilized 4inch, telescopic, gravity propelled locking blade, first produced in 1937 it was allowed to the German air force and paratroops 

it uses a sliding blade in the metal grip frame, which was originally fitted in smooth wood scale, the blade itself is a blunt spear point 

to open this user point it downwards while flipping its fulcrum lever allowing a blade to open to full extent releasing the blade locks the blade into position

the fjm may also be opened by flipping the blade release lever while flicking the wrist holding the knife 

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