Friday, 8 March 2019

What experts are saying about electrons||Electron configuration

One of the building blocks, which is there in you, in me and in every particle of any matter you will find all over the universe, the electron is a negatively charged particle.what is electron transport chain? what is electron beam machining?

 To figure out such questions, you can go on reading till the end, I am gonna talk about what experts are saying about electrons and electronic configuration


What experts are saying about electrons || Electron configuration

The electron is a subatomic particle along with proton and neutron, it revolves around the nucleus in different orbits which represents different energy level, the higher the distance from nucleus the better the energy possessed by the electron

the electron is responsible for current flowing in conductors, in fact, electric current is nothing but the flow of free electron. within conductors, electron flows freely from atom to atom

current flows generally from negative pole to positive pole, although in curriculum direction of current flow is taken as positive to the negative pole.


JJ Thompson was the discoverer of the electron, despite all the experiments he performed on electron he could only manage to find its charge to mass ratio, the credit of finding the charge of electron goes to Robert Millikan through oil drop experiment in 1909.

A charge of the electron is called elementary charge value of which is 1.602 × 10-19 coulomb but due to its negative charge, a value is given by -1.602 × 10-19 coulomb 

The charge of a proton is also equal to elementary charge in spite of its more massiness than an electron, so in neutral atoms, there are as many numbers of electrons as the proton.

in some natural unit systems, such as a system of atomic units, e functions as a unit of electric charge, that is e is equal to 1 unit in those systems, use of an elementary charge as a unit was promoted by George Stoney in 1874 for the first system of natural units

at that time the particle which we call was not discovered since then the difference between particle electron and charge of the electron is still blurred.


The electron configuration of atomic species allows us to understand the shape and energy of its electrons,
many rules are referred to understand configuration and location of electron its prospective energy state


however these assignments are arbitrary and it is always uncertain as to which electron is being described, understanding configuration gives a good idea about bonding, magnetism and other chemical properties

an electron is able to move from one energy level to another by either absorbing or by radiating light particle known as a photon, knowledge of an electronic configuration is important in the understanding of a periodic table

shells and subshells are first conceived through the Bohr model, now at present despite being understanding in terms of quantum mechanic nature of the electron, a configuration is still understood by shell and subshell

shell is a set of allowed state, which shares the same main quantum number n, now nth shell can occupy maximum  2n2 .meaning fist shell can occupy 2, second can 8

the factor of 2 arises because the number of states allowed is doubled due to electron spin, each atomic orbital can admit up to two electron one with +1\2 spin and other with -1\2 spin

a subshell is a set of states defined by common azimuthal quantum number l, within a shell the values l= 0, 1, 2, 3 corresponds to s,p,d,f labels, the max number of an electron that can be added in orbital is given by 2(2l + 1).

the energy associated with orbital is considered the energy of an electron, thus total energy of an atom is the addition of energy of each electron

the configuration which corresponds to the lowest energy is called ground state any other state is called excited state. the excitation of valence electrons(outer most orbital electrons) need energy corresponds to the photon

and excitation of core electron needs relatively higher energy.


Electron velocity can also be termed as a drift velocity, is the average velocity attained by charged particles, due to the presence of an electric field, in general electrons in conductor roams randomly at the Fermi velocity

so the net flow of electron is zero, adding an electric field will result into a small net flow in one direction which is called drift, drift velocity is directly proportional to current and in resistive material, it is also proportional to the field

the Ohm's law can be expressed in terms of drift velocity 
u=\mu E,

where u is a drift velocity and mu is electron mobility, E is an electric field


An electron microscope uses an accelerated electron as a source of illumination, the wavelengths of an electron are up to 100,000 times more than light, hence electron microscope have higher resolution than an optical microscope


a scanning transmission type of microscope has achieved 50 pm resolution, and magnification up to 10,000,000 x, whereas normal ones are limited to 200 nm and magnifications below 2000 x.

in 1926 harsh Busch developed an electromagnetic lens, the physicist Leo Szilard tried in 1928 to convince him to build microscope so he applied for a patent, the prototype electron microscope capable of four hundred power magnification was developed by Ernst Ruska in 1931.

in the May of the same year, Reinhold Fudenberg obtained a patent for electron microscope Ernst lube built and obtained images from the prototype, applied a concept used in Gutenberg's patent

in the following year, 1933 Ruska built the first electron microscope that exceeded the resolution of an optical microscope.


Electron beam machining is like laser beam machining, a difference is instead of a laser electron beam is used to the incident on workpiece.result is the generation of heat and melting with vaporization of the workpiece

this process takes place inside the vacuum chamber


It works on the principle of conversion of kinetic energy into heat energy, when the high-speed electron collides with workpiece it transfers its kinetic energy to heat energy which ultimately vaporizes piece

here the reason vacuum used is, if there are air particles electrons will collide before reaching a target and loose energy



1.ELECTRON GUN - It is used to launch electron and to target them at small spot, it is generally kathode ray tube, which also accelerates them at proper velocity, usually tungsten is used to make it, then it is used to heat up 2500 degree centigrade, which causes electron to comes out due to gaining energy

2. MAGNETIC LENSES -  Which shapes the electron beam and doesn't allow to deflect electrons, this lenses allow only to pass convergent electron, thus a highly focused beam is obtained,  they also accept the low energy electrons thereby improving the quality of the same

3.WORKPIECE AND HOLDING DEVICE -It can machine both metallic and nonmetallic device, the workpiece is held by a suitable fixture which is mounted on CNC machine, this table can be moved in all direction controlling the shaping of material.

4.ELECTROMAGNETIC LENSE AND DEFLECTION COIL - Electromagnetic beam is used to focus the beam at the spot, so the high-intensity beam reaches the target, deflection coil doesn't allow to deflect electrons thereby increasing its intensity.


The electron tube produces high-velocity electrons which go to anode tube, which is placed after the cathode tube, now this high intense beam passes through magnetic lenses, there are series of lenses which take care of convergent electron passes through it

these electrons pass through an electromagnetic coil and deflection coil it focuses beam at the spot, this high-velocity beam collides with a workpiece and loses its kinetic energy into heat energy

this removes material from the contact surface and whole set up is kept in a vacuum or else electrons lose energy unnecessarily. to know more about this you can visit 


Electron transport chain is a series of complexes that transfer the electron from donors to acceptors through redox reactions and couples this with a transfer of protons

this creates the electrochemical gradient that drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate(ATP) which stores energy electrochemically in the form of highly strained bonds

the molecules of the chain peptides, enzymes and others, the final acceptor in the chain of aerobic respiration is molecule oxygen, although the variety of acceptors lie sulfate is there in aerobic respiration


electron transport chain is used in taking out energy from photosynthesis through redox, electron transport chains are major sites of premature electron leakage to oxygen, generating superoxides and potentially escalated oxidative stress

the function of this chain is to produce transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient as a result of redox reactions.if protons flow back through the membrane, they enable mechanical work such as rotating bacterial flagella

most eucaryotic cells have mitochondria which produce ATP from a product of citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and amino acid oxidation, at the mitochondrial inner membrane, electrons from NADH to FADH2 pass the electron chain to oxygen.

the electron chain comprises of enzymatic series of donors and acceptors, each electron donor will pass electron to the electrogenerative acceptor, which in turn transfer this to another acceptor

the process which continues till it reaches oxygen, a passage of electron between donor and acceptor generates energy, which is used to generate proton gradient.


The etc is important in photosynthesis as the processes that maintain electrochemical gradient used to drive ATP and NADPH synthesis by moving protons from the chloroplast stroma across the thylakoid membrane into the thylakoid lumen

Producing ATP - in mitochondria, electron transport chains pump H plus ions through a membrane, which produces a concentration gradient this process also happens in chloroplasts

Producing NADPH - While one electron chain provides energy used to make ATP, a second electron chain receives an excited electron from chlorophyll molecule and uses them to make NADPH

In photosynthesis the light-dependent reaction takes place on thylakoid membrane the inside of the thylakoid membranes is lumen and the outside the thylakoid is the stroma, where are light independent reactions takes place 


the thylakoid membrane contains some integral membrane protein complexes that catalyze the light reaction there are four major protein complexes, photosystem 2, cytochrome b6f, photosystem 1, and ATP synthase

when a chlorophyl a molecule within a reaction center of ps 2 absorbs a photon, an electron in this molecule attains a higher energy level as this state is very unstable it makes the electron releases energy through redox reaction called ETC.

The electron flows go from PSII TO cytochrome b6f to PSI .in the PSI the electron gets energy from another photon, the final electron acceptor is NADP

Cytochrome b6f and ATP synthase work together to create ATP, the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane creates proton motive force 

this is used by ATP synthase to form ATP, in cyclic photophosphorylation, cytochrome b6f uses the energy of electron from not only PSII but also PSI to create more ATP

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Wednesday, 6 March 2019

Why nuclear fusion is scarier than dating tayor swift ??

ya, it is scary if you are up to date in the knowledge of nuclear fusion, from atom bombs and nuclear reactors to our godfather SUN and trillions and trillions of other stars, nuclear fusion is related or I should say it a primary driving force behind outcomes they entail.

nuclear fussion in sunn

so I'm gonna tell you about a process which is there in most part of our universe, for a facts of such a high value you must be paying me billions if not trillions and you are here giving me not even a penny !! jokes lets get started "why nuclear fusion is scarier than dating Taylor Swift".


 nuclear fusion is a process in which two or more nuclei are joined together to make one or more nuclei or subatomic particles(proton, neutron). now whenever this happens, new nuclei formed are somewhat heavier or lighter than original ones

a difference in masses is converted into energy release or energy absorption. this difference in masses occurs due to differences in binding energy between the nucleus before and after the collision, fusion is the process which powers the stars

a fusion process which yields particles lighter than iron 56 or nickel 62 results into energy release, whereas it will result in energy retention by resulting nucleons when otherwise is the case

which means the lighter elements like are more fusible and heavier elements like uranium and thorium are more fissionable. extreme events like supernova can produce suffice energy to fuse together light elements and make heavy one like iron.

Energy release during nuclear fusion is due to the interplay of  two opposing forces 
1.nuclear force...which combines particles like proton and neutron together
2.coloumb force...which is responsible for preparation between like charges. (proton and proton/neutron and neutron)

Nuclear fusion and fission

inside the sun fusion takes place at superhigh temperatures and immense gravitational pressures,, now what is a distinction between nuclear fusion and fission, simply put fusion is combining together atoms to create big one and fission is breaking of larger atoms into smaller ones

nuclear fission release heat energy, as per Albert Einstein's energy equation, energy release is equivalent to the mass reduction in resulting atoms.

nuclear fission takes place when largely unstable isotopes(atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons) are bombarded with highly accelerated neutrons causing fission in isotopes

in the majority of nuclear reactors, this process is done in which isotope is uranium 235, this breaks apart the isotope nucleus in two nuclei, 3 neutrons in the total and huge amount of energy

the high-speed neutrons which are ejected causes strike more nuclei and cause more fission ultimately causing an endless process called a chain reaction.

fusion causes small atoms like hydrogen and helium to fuse together to form heavy elements and release of large energy under high temperature and pressure condition

in the sun tritium and deuterium(isotopes of hydrogen 3 and hydrogen 2 respectively) unite together to form a neutron  and helium isotope, the amount of energy release is several times more than fission

scientists are working to control the fusion reaction in an attempt to make a fusion reactor to produce electricity they say this is more beneficial as it produces less radioactive waste compared to fission.

fission is used in nuclear reactors as it is controlled and fusion, on the other hand, is hard to control and such necessary conditions are expensive to create

Nuclear fusion in the sun

ever Wondered what makes the sun immensely powerful????? 
what enables it to release such an enormous heat and light energy every second??
behind such energy, there is nuclear fusion and fission, the inside and center of the sun is extremely hot it's having the temperature of about 14,000,000 k and density of 160 g/cc in gas form

nuclear fussion

atomic collisions are very frequent resulting in radiation of brute energy why energy is released and which relation it follows was discovered by Einstein and given in the form of the energy equation 

here m is mass of atoms fused and c is a speed of light

The pressure in the sun's core is millions of times higher than that is on earth's surface, every second 600 million tons of hydrogen getting converted into helium

the chain reaction in the sun is called proton-reaction, and it all starts with proton and converting it into helium, steps are as follows,

two pairs of protons fusing and forming two deuterons
each deuterium fuses with one more proton forming helium 3
two helium 3 nucleus fuse together to form beryllium 6 which is unstable, which further breaks into helium 4 and two protons.
the process also releases two neutrons, two positron and gamma rays.

the proton-proton reaction starts when two protons are able to recover the repulsive force and get close enough to bind together since the speed of proton depends upon temperature fusion can occur at high pressure

in the 1960 astronomers made an odd suggestion saying perhaps the sun is going out, what gave rise to such ominous comments are results of some experiments

in pp reaction equation you will see v there, they are neutrinos, they are elusive to say the least, they escaped virtually unhindered from the sun and expected to be in a copious manner despite efforts of countless teams the observed rate is one-third of what would be expected

this came as a shock coz if we think we can understand fusion, this became known as a "neutrino problem" resolution of neutrino problem came from Canadian and British scientists with using SNO.

Nuclear fusion reactor

a device to produce electricity from the energy produced of fusion, although these reactors are more theoretical, since 1950 science are trying in direction of developing such reactor

Characteristics... energy producing method is nuclear fusion reactor is joining of two light nuclei, as I have already mentioned, in order for fusion to take place, a speed of joining particles should suffice enough to contradict repulsive Coulomb force

there has to be some separation between the two(less than a one trillionth of the centimeter), numerous atoms mean a gas of atoms are needed to get the high amount of resulting energy, and this too is a necessary condition of high temperature

for that, a gas containing experimental atoms are heated beyond particular temperature so that electrons are knocked out of there and forming ionized gas of free electrons and positive nuclei

this is called plasma state, the fourth state of the matter, most of the celestial objects are in this state in our cosmos,

you will be shocked and surprised to know that the temperature of such processes are 100,000,000 degree Celsius which is six times that of the temperature at the sun's center

such plasma states lose energy through radiation, conduction, and convections, to maintain plasma states amount of energy lost must  be added through the fusion process, hence frequency and time gap of collisions  must be maintained

these plasma states are confined in space with huge gravitational fields, on earth, it is not possible to produce sufficiently enough plasma to confine it, for terrestrial applications however there are two ways  of confinement
1... magnetic confinement
2...inertial confinement

Principals of magnetic confinement:

1. confinement physics...magnetic confinement is most developed approach to attain fusion, the large part of fusion is to attain magnetic field strong enough to confine the plasma, successful confinement must meet criteria such as

plasma must be in time independent equilibrium state, the equilibrium must be macroscopically stable,
leakage of  energy to plasma boundary must be small

many different types of magnetic confinements are planned and tested over a period of years.

nuclear fusion

2. Toroidal confinement...most sought after the concept of toroidal confinement is tokamak, the tokamak was introduced in 1960 by the Soviet physicists. the magnetic lines of force are helixes that set in a spiral around the torus

the helical field has two components named toroidal, which points the long way around the torus, and poloidal components directed the short way around the machine

both the components are necessary for plasma to be in the equilibrium state if the poloidal field were zero so the field lines were simply a circle, wrapped about the porous, then the plasma would not be in equilibrium.

the particle would not follow a line and drift away towards the wall, the addition of poloidal components gives particle orbits which are contained within a device.

3. Mirror confinement...alternate approach to magnetic confinement is to provide the straight configuration in which end loss is decreased with plug in of electric and such linear fusion reactor magnetic field strength is increased at ends

charged particles which approach end are slowed down and may get reflected from this magnetic mirror, particles with extremely high speed are not reflected by the mirror

to prevent such leakage electrostatic plugging is provided, an additional layer of plasma is provided beyond the magnetic mirror, the plasma in this end plugs provides an electrostatic potential barrier to nuclei

4. Plasma previously mentioned plasma needs to be heated 100,000,000 degrees centigrade two methods are used namely electromagnetic wave heating and neutral beam injection method.

in a first method, electromagnetic waves are directed by an antenna on the surface of plasma, the waves penetrate the plasma and give its energy to constituent particles

ionized gas of plasma allows propagation of such waves which are not found in other forms of matter.effective wave heating technique employs the technique which are from radio frequencies to microwave

power absorption is often are often rely on resonant interaction between wave and plasma, if the frequency of the incident ray is equal to the frequency of the nucleus at which it generates about magnetic field line, this resonant nucleus absorb energy from a wave.

Nuclear fusion advantages

By the end of century demands of energy will be tripled under the conditions of population growth, the rise in electricity demand a new large scale, sustainable form of energy is needed, following advantages of fusion worth pursuing

Abundant energy

fusing atoms together generate nearly four million times more energy than burning coal, oil and gas and 4 times that of nuclear fission


nuclear fuels are widely available  and nearly inexhaustible, deuterium can be produced by distillation of any water and tritium is produced due to a fusion of lithium and neutron


it doesn't generate gases such as co2 and other green house gases, its major product is helium which is inert /nonreactive gas

Short-lived E-waste

reactors produce no high activity, long-lived nuclear waste, the activation of components is low enough for the materials to be used in 100 years

Limited risk of proliferation

fusion doesn't involve elements such as uranium and plutonium, so there are no fissile materials

No risk of meltdown

a Fukushima type accident isn't possible in a tokamak fusion device, it is difficult to maintain precise conditions necessary for fusion, if any disturbance occurs fusion stops and plasma cools down


the fusion envisioned for the later part of the century involves similar cost as fission reactor, the average cost per kilowatt is slightly more expensive at the beginning, when the technology is new and less expensive as the economies of a scale bring the cost down

  • to understand nuclear fusion easily, here are some nuclear fusion diagrams.

you are also getting some worksheets to understand fusion in more detail and you can also use it for studies

  • the process, which has many expectations, process on which perhaps our future will rely, is going on everywhere in cosmos yet its need to be fully utilized for our benefits. the day is not far when we will accomplish one more goal of utilizing such high grade energy.
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Monday, 4 March 2019

Everything About Our Wing Commander ABHINANDAN

Abhinandan, Abhinandan, Abhinandan.I know you are not surprised to see those reiterations as you are pretty much used to this nowadays, from news channels to social media to people around us everyone talks about will get to know everything about our wing commander abhinandan HERE all at one place ...

  •  Question is, why is he viral to this extent??? , what makes him so popular?? Who is he, what's his family background, who is he espoused with, let's dig deep on such questions you will know everything about him thoroughly in this post.

Everything About Our Wing Commander ABHINANDAN

  • BIRTHDATE- 21 JUNE 1983.
  • HEIGHT- 5'11"
  • WEIGHT- 70 KG
  • SHOE SIZE - 11
  • EARNING - 80 K TO 100 K /MONTH INR.

  • Wing commander abhinandan is an Indian air force (IAF) fighter pilot and officer. He pilots MIG 21 bison fighter aircraft.
  • He got recognition, instead, I should say popularity around 27Th February 2019, for shooting down Pakistani F16 aircraft before being shot down and captured by Pakistan in a dog fight of 2019 into PAK stand-off.
  • He fought bravely eliminating mighty F16 aircraft of Pakistan which is more advanced in terms of capacity as compared to mig21 in which abhinandan was flying, it was an important defense since Pakistani fighter plane was heading for retaliation.
  • Earlier before a day on 26th February which exactly a month from republic day, 12 Indian air force Miraj 2000 fighter planes bombarded 3 crucial headquarters of jaish-e-Mohammed, which is notorious for doing numerous terrorist attacks(most by any terror group in India) in India since last 30 years.
  • His aircraft Feb 27'th, he crossed the Pakistani territory, he was shot down near the village Horan,  ejected, opened his parachute and landed to the ground then local villagers gathered around him.


  • He asked a boy whether he is in India, to which boy replied positively, abhinandan started shouting pro Indian slogan, in response people started shouting pro Pakistani slogans.
  • Abhinandan realized that he's in Pakistan, and he started running away while firing warning shots, Abhi tried to swallow some sensitive documents and threw some documents in the pond after which he was hardly bitten by villagers before Pak army rescued him.
  • After which some videos were released in media, in which he was seen blindfolded, and he was being interrogated by Pakistani officials, other shows he is interrogated over tea, those videos got the varied reaction from being termed vulgar to getting praise for interception of the army.
  • Although these are the violation of Geneva convention, after which Pakistan deleted those videos from youtube.

Early life and career

  • Abhinandan's family belonged to thirupanamoor, a village near Kanchipuram, his father is a retired air marshal from IAF and mother was a doctor by profession.
  • He is married to a retired squadron leader named Tanvi Marwaha, she served a country for 15 years, she holds the degree of armed force executive from IIM Ahmedabad, currently, she is working in JIO as a DGM.
  • His son's name is Tavish.


  • On the 28'th February Imran Khan in parliament announced release of wing commander Abhinandan as a gesture of peace. A petition was filed for restraining his setback however was rejected by Islamabad high court.
  • Talking to BBC Urdu, Shah Mahmood Qureshi foreign minister of Pakistan claimed that they are not in any compulsion of doing so, as it is claimed by Indian media.
  • A video went viral hours before release, showing he was praising Pak army and criticizing media counterpart, IAF, however, clarified it was done in duress in conditions of mental harassment.
  • He was announced to be realized at 4.00 IST hrs. But, his release was delayed by Pak government claiming it was due to paperwork and documentation, however it is suspiciously perceived as a sort of propaganda.
  • When he returned through Atari border his body language showed to the world how brave our soldiers are, his outlook and gestures were enough to state his brave character and patriotic personality
  • While he was crossing the border a woman was shown which was mistakenly identified as his wife, she was actually Dr. Farah Bugti; FSP of Pakistan for Indian affairs, let me tell she is also one of the officials handling a case of Kulbhuman Jadhav.
  • He was received by Indian BSF and then handed over to it, next day he was taken to an army hospital for a medical check-up as he was needed to eject, he was diagnosed with spine and back injury
  • Upon arrival, he was taken for the MRI, that report is normal, and he will come back soon to his duty, and he told officials that he is desperate to come back into the cockpit.
Our soldier's bravery and his patriotism showed us all that as long as abhinandan and several lakhs there protecting and safeguarding us we can have the breather. Jay hind...

Friday, 1 March 2019

Interesting Facts I Bet You Never Knew About HURRICANE ,HURRICANE FLORENCE

I am gonna talk about the most dangerous natural calamity of all time, which is a hurricane, yes you read it right, it ranks higher than disastrous and monstrous tsunamis as well as above than mighty earthquakes, you will get to know about biggest hurricanes struck so far and their aftermath



Hurricane is a disaster which damages the world most devastating among all, both in terms of human casualties as well as in property and material damage, let's dive into the depth of the matter.

Hurricane Katrina :

  • Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive category 5 hurricane that made an appearance in Florida and Louisiana on August 05, causing catastrophic damage in central Florida to eastern Texas, the storm originated from the Bahamas, from the merger of the tropical wave and the remnants of tropical ten.
  • after one day earlier depression transformed in storm, and strengthened into hurricane only two hours before making landfall on Hallandale beach, it then tweaked and again strengthened into category 5 hurricane eventually in the Gulf of Mexico
  • it weakened into category 3 before striking southeast Louisiana and Mississippi ,overall 1836 people died in hurricane and subsequent floods, severe property damage occurred in many coastal areas
  • at Mississippi beachfront towns ,boats and casino barges rammed buildings, pushing cars and houses inland, water reached 6-12 miles beyond the beach,many areas became flooded and flood water lingered there for week
  • total property damage estimated as 125$ billion,most of the transport and communication networks servicing new Orleans were disabled by the flooding and tens of thousands of people who dint evacuate prior to landfall stranded there without food,shelter, and basic necessities.
  • on August 25 Katrina storm surge caused 53 breaches to various flood protection structures submerging 80 percent of the city, reports claimed that two third of flooding caused due to the failure of the city's floodwalls.
  • It incurred many economic and environmental damages, as it was most intensified at coastal areas it caused many oil spills.

Hurricane Matthew

  • Hurricane Matthew was first category 5 hurricane in Atlanta since 2007 that caused catastrophic damage and a humanitarian crisis in Haiti, which was the deadliest hurricane in Haiti since 2005, it caused extensive damage to masses in greater Antilles.
  • originated from tropical wave that emerged off Africa,it developed into tropical storm in east of the anti lies, it became hurricane in Venezuela and Florida, before going into intensification and turning into category 5 hurricane
  • it was there at lowest altitude ever for such category of hurricane in Atlantic,widespread effects were felt many parts,the most significant effects were felt in Haiti causing 546 deaths and 1.9$ billion damage making it worst disaster since 2010 quake.
  • high winds and flooding caused disruption in telecommunication and extensive swaths of land it caused damage across many islands.including the Bahamas, Haiti, Saint Vincent, Jamaica, Cuba, Colombia, Canada, and the US.
  • It caused 603 fatalities and 15.1 billion dollar damage.

Hurricane Florence

  • Hurricane Florence was powerful and long-lived, it caused a lot of damage in Carolina in September 2018 mainly as freshwater flooding, it dropped 35.93 inches of rain in North Carolina, the six of the storm, third of the hurricane and first major hurricane of 2018 season
  • it originated from the strong tropical wave that emerged off the west coast of Africa, steady organization resulted in the formation of a tropical depression on the next day in Cape Verde the system acquired tropical storm strength on September 1.
  • maximum wind speed estimated was about 215 kmph, strong wind shear torn the storm apart and it degraded to a tropical storm by Sept 7, the system gained hurricane status on Sept 9 and major hurricane on the following day.
  • the system brought early some squall conditions to Cape Verde resulting into landslides and floods, increasing wind shear caused the storm's winds to taper over the next few days, it caused 2 deaths in Florida, 43 in North Carolina,9 in South Carolina and 3 in Virginia.

Hurricane Irma

  • Hurricane Irma was an immensely powerful and devastating hurricane, the strongest experienced in Atlantic in terms of sustained winds since Wilma, Irma was the first category five hurricanes to reach leeward islands on record.
  • it is a second costliest hurricane after maria for Caribbeans.
Preparation: given Irma's forecast track was along the much of the Caribbean island chain, warnings were issued for leeward islands, in Antigua and Barbuda residents safeguarded homes and cleaned up there properties
  • hospitals stacked up things for the upcoming three days and checked the functionality of generators, the NHC issued several watches and warning for the southeast US.
Aftermath: the total of 64.8 billion dollars damaged and around 134 casualties occurred, reports such as blown off roofs surfaced thereafter
  • in the immediate aftermath in hurricane Irma's path through west indies and the Caribbean, devastation to roads, harbors and airports significantly impeded transportation and distribution of relief supplies.
  • in response to hurricane's approach the government of Antigua and Barbuda issued a mandatory evacuation on Sept 9, by the afternoon of Sept 9, Bahamas light and power company had sent crews across the archipelago to repair infrastructure damage.
  • swollen rivers contributed to worsening flooding in the days after the storm system left, resulting in additional evacuations.

Hurricane Michael

  • it formed in Caribbean sea on October 2, the disturbance became a tropical depression on October 7 after a week of slow development, next day it intensified into the hurricane in Cuba
  • the maximum speed of Michael was recorded as 250 kmph and death toll reached 72with damage of 25.1 billion dollars, around 200 people were evacuated from the coast of Cuba, in US governor declared that he will announce emergency if needed and told residentials to stay alert 
  • in Cuba, at least 70 percent of Isla de la Juventud lost power high winds left around 200000 people without power in one province, at one point 1.2 million customers were without power in some east and south parts of US.
  • In Mexico beach, catastrophic destruction occurred as many homes were flattened or completely swept away by 14 ft surge and category 4 winds, in southern Georgia sustained winds peaked 115 mph in Donalsonville.
  • in US declaration made by president trump, made the allowance of the 75 percent of the funds used in protective measures, residents in a country were able to receive a grant for house repairs, temporary shelter, and loans for uninsured property loans.

Hurricane Harvey 

  • Hurricane Harvey of 2017 is tied with Katrina hurricane as the costliest cyclone on record caused 125 billion dollar primarily due to rainfall triggered floods in Houston metropolitan area since 2005 it was the first major hurricane to make landfall.
  • many areas in four days received around 40-inch rainfall and caused unprecedented flooding, the floods inundated hundreds of thousands of homes and displaced more than 30000 people and prompted more than 17000 people.
  • hurricane Harvey caused 107 confirm deaths with 1 in Guyana and others in US.tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued about six hours prior to the development of Harvey in the Carribean
  • in Lousiana governer issued state of emergency for the whole state, a mandatory evacuation ordered in city, winds left every household without electricity in Barbados with majority of outrage occurring in Christ church.
  • blocked drainage caused 15 businesses being flooded, around 3,00,000 structures and 5,00,000 vehicles damaged in Texas alone, tens of thousands were left were in need of rescue and 336,000 were without electricity in Texas.

Hurricane Andrew Facts

  • adjusted for inflation, hurricane Andrew is the second-costliest storm in the US, after Katrina 
  • andrew was the first in the 1992 hurricane season
  • it was first categorized as a category 4 and government recategorized it in category 5
  • most residents had less than one day to prepare their house and evacuate coastal area
  • much of the ground-based wind measuring tools in technology were either destroyed by flying debris or incapable of registering its max speed 
  • most of the damage occurred to homes were a result of faulty constructions.
  • after Andrew hurricane, south Florida has the highest building codes in the nation

Hurricane energy share price 

  • though hurricanes don't seem as dangerous, they can inflict tremendous loss of lives and capital, these hurricanes have damaged the US and neighboring countries to the most since late history, though in a modern day many countries face severe rain and flood, it hardly get as bad as a hurricane.
  • Hope you are satisfied with my article, give us feedback in the comment and share it as much as u can provide you liked it, moreover you can contact me for suggestions and queries on email given below, have a good day.


Thursday, 28 February 2019

Facts about EARTHQUAKE that will impress your friends

In this post I'm gonna talk about an earthquake, its causes, its effects and I will discuss some of the notorious earthquakes of let's get started



If you are a citizen of Japan, you must be pretty much aware of it, and you must have experienced at least one of those plenty if not is very frequent in Japan due to an anatomy of its tectonic plates and undergoing seismic activities. now let us see why earthquakes take place.

Earthquake Causes :

  • In brief, it is caused by faultline, sudden lateral or vertical movement along a rupture
  • now let's go in detail,the surface of the earth is in continue slow  motion.this is plate tectonics-- the motion of immense rigid plates at the surface of the earth in response to flow of rock within the earth. the plates cover the entire surface of the globe.since they all are moving they all rub against each other in some places.
  • at others, they sink beneath each other or spread apart from each such places the motion isn't smooth, the plates are stuck together at edges, but the rest plate is continuing to move, therefore the rock along the edges are distorted.
  • as the motion continues, the strain escalates to the point where the rock cannot withstand with any bending, with a lurch a rock breaks, and the two sides move. and earthquakes is a shaking that radiates out from breaking a rock.
  • people have long been believed the breaks occur in the surface caused earthquake rather than vice was bunjiro koto a geologist in Japan who was studying a 60-mile long fault, first suggested that quakes are a result of faultlines.
  • he said that an earthquake is a huge amount of energy released when an accumulated strain causes a fault to rupture.he said that force causes them to twist their shape over the period of centuries.eventually leads in a wrenching snap to relieve the strain

Effects Of Earthquake :

  • ground shaking is the most familiar effect of the earthquake, it is a result of passage of activity of seismic waves through ground and ranges  from quite gentle in small quakes to incredibly violent in large quakes
  • landslides are caused by earthquakes both by direct rupture and by sustained shaking of unstable slops, they can destroy building in its way or block roads and railroad lines.
  • tsunami or which is wrongly termed as "tidal waves", is a grave hazard to many parts of the world, tsunamis are waves caused by movement of sea floor due to the earthquake, which can travel vast distances in short time.
  • liquefaction and subsidence of the ground are important to effect which often are causes of much destruction in quakes, particularly in the unconsolidated ground, liquefaction is when sediments grains are literally made to float in groundwater, which causes the soil to lose its solidity.

Earthquake Indonesia :

  • more than 400 people reported dead after a tsunami struck western Java and southern Sumatra islands during the evening of December 22, 2018, Indonesia's geological and weather service says tsunami was likely caused by undersea landslides
  • a few months earlier magnitude 7.5 earthquake struck Indonesia's central Sulawesi province on Sep 28,2018, triggering tsunamis and landslides that caused widespread destruction and casualties


  • more than 2000 people are known to have died, the central Sulawesi  quake occurred less than two months after a series of quakes struck Indonesia's Lombok island, the strongest of those was a magnitude 6.9 temblor on Aug 5
  • children who were affected by the 2018 earthquakes and tsunami have lost family members and friends as well as their homes and possessions, everyone remembers 2004 quake which also brought disastrous consequence tsunami.
  • it killed around 130,000 people alone in Indonesia and 170000 in total, in 14 countries.

Earthquake In California :

  • the seven biggest earthquakes of California history are of 1857,1872,1892,1906,1952,1992,1922.
  • the 1857 quake known as a fort Quezon quake caused larger average ground movements than the more famous 1906 horizontal displacement along the fault was around 29 feet.
  • 7.4 was the magnitude of 1872 quake 27 people killed when a row of houses collapsed, it moved the ground horizontally as much as 23 feet.
  • in 1892, an earthquake was of measure 7.8, ground fissures, rockslides and some 155 tremors followed this quake, the 1906 quake was of magnitude 7.8, it struck early in the morning and left 80 percent of the city damaged by quake and fire.
  • the quake of 1922 was of magnitude 7.3, this quake caused by Mendocino fault, a series of quakes with magnitude 6.5 struck over an 18 hour period in the same region.

Earthquake Oregon :

  • oregon is overdue for a massive earthquake that in combination with an ensuing tsunami, could kill 10000 people, Oregonians are used to hearing of little quakes here and there, most of them in the Pacific ocean.
  • here is a rundown of biggest quakes to hit Oregon in the last 10 years, using data of the US geological survey, all but the 2 of the 250 strongest quakes were under the ocean, I am providing you with the data of the five biggest quakes of Oregon
  • the magnitude of 5.8 in 2012 -this quake struck 159 miles off the west coast of coos bay, few people reported the feeling of the weak jolt, a magnitude of 5.8 in June 2015 was about 300 miles west of Salem, similar clusters occur quite a few times in that part
  • a 5.9 magnitude quake hit in June 2015 along with the magnitude 6 in April 2012 were few of recent times in Oregon
  • very recent of these is in August 2018, even the strongest quake of the past decade wasn't strong enough to trigger tsunami warnings.

Earthquake Japan :

  • Most earthquake-prone country of the world Japan has seen plenty of those, and their architecture and technological advancements have also made them strong against such quakes
  • if you want the latest update of an earthquake in Japan you can visit:
  • the islands of Japan are primarily the several oceanic movements occurring over hundreds of millions of years as a result of subduction of Philippines sea plate under the American plate and Okinawa plate


  • in Japan, Shindo scale is used to measure earthquakes by seismic activity, with 9.1 magnitudes the 2011 quake was one of the most destructive ones Japan has ever seen it occurred at Pacific coast of Tohoku
  • it was the 4 the most powerful quake of the world since 1900, earthquake triggered tsunami waves which escalated up to 40.5 m at some places.
  • it lasted for six minutes with a large number of foreshocks and hundreds of aftershocks over 800 aftershocks were reported of 4,5 or greater magnitude/

Earthquake In Mexico :

  • mexico lie within the two seismically active quake zones, the baza peninsula lies near the boundary of a Pacific plate and North American plate, southern Mexico also contains numerous faults which cause that section to have high tectonic activity.
  • most destructive quake amongst all was an earthquake of 1885 which caused 5000 to 45000 deaths and around 30000 were injured which was measured of 8 magnitudes on the scale
  • you can see a detailed list of quakes of all time in Mexico:

Earthquake Today :

  • simply open google or any search engine and search for "earthquake today" and you will find the latest update on earthquake from all over the world as well as your region.

Crux :

  • in this post you read about some of the most earthquake zones of the world ,some earthquake stats, reasons of earthquakes as well as its effects
  • hope you liked this post ,give us feedback if you liked it ,do share this with your friends and family and send us your query or suggestion on below address, have a good day.

Monday, 25 February 2019

What everyone must know about TORNADO|| Tornado ottawa

If you belong to the USA, you must be pretty much familiar with the term tornado, yes the USA is a country which has witnessed numerous tornadoes over the period of years, and if you don't, bear with  me I will make you understand this.

If you belong to the USA, you must be pretty much familiar with the term tornado, yes the USA is a country which has witnessed numerous tornados over the period of years, and if you don't, leave it upon me I will make you understand this.

If you belong to the USA, you must be pretty much familiar with the term tornado, yes the USA is a country which has witnessed numerous tornados over the period of years, and if you don't, leave it upon me I will make you understand this.


We all have seen those whirling funnels termed as a tornado, whether on Tv or internet, with its high angular velocity as well as linear velocity, a tornado is one more add on a weapon in nature's arsenal. I am gonna discuss how they are formed.

How are tornadoes formed

  • A Tornado is a violently rotating column of air, extending from thunderstorm to ground, the most violent tornadoes capable of destruction have a speed around 300 miles per hour.
  • Most tornados are born from a thunderstorm, you need warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and cool dry air from Canada when these two air masses meet it creates instability in the atmosphere
  • Change in wind direction and an escalation in wind speed with Increment in height creates a horizontal spinning effect in the lower atmosphere, lifting air in the updraft bends the rotating air from horizontal to vertical.
  • An area of rotation 2-6 m wide, now extends through much of the storm, most violent tornadoes are formed from this strong area of rotation.abudant low-level moisture is required to form tornadoes and thunderstorm clouds with which most tornadoes are associated.
  • A trigger is needed to lift the moist air aloft, once the air begins to rise and become saturated, it will continue rising to great heights to produce a thunderstorm cloud, if the atmosphere is unstable.
  • Tornadoes usually form in areas where winds at all level of the atmosphere, are not only strong but also turn with height in a clockwise direction.

Tornado Facts:

  • Damage paths of tornadoes can be in excess of 1 mile wide and 50 miles long.
  • A tornado may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up or cloud forms within a funnel.
  • Tornadoes are most likely to occur between 3 pm and 9 pm but can occur at any time.
  • The winds of a tornado can reach up to 480 kmph, that's strong enough to peel the roofs off houses, uproot trees and hurl heavy objects, such as cars for hundreds of meters.
  • Tornadoes come in different shapes and sizes.some may appear as wind funnel-shaped clouds others as a thin rope like swirls stretching from ground to the sky.
  • The duration of tornadoes and the distance they travel varies.most last less than 10 minutes and travels up to 5 to 10 km, in extreme cases however they can last several hours and travel up to 150 km.
  • Tornadoes are measured in the Fujita scale from F0 to F5, with F5 being the most destructive and strongest
  • Formation of tornadoes is so complex that scientist is yet to completely understand it, which makes them very unpredictable.
  • Most destructive tornado ever recorded was in Bangladesh in 1989, it traveled through Dhaka vanishing 20 villages and killing 1300 people.
  • Most of the world's the tornadoes occur in the US, what's known as tornado alley, from west Texas to North Dakota, this area sees 200 tornados each year.

Tornado Alley:

  • In the US there are two regions with a high frequency of tornadoes, Florida is one and US alley in south central US is other, Florida has numerous tornados simply due to a high frequency of thunderstorms daily.
  • Several tropical storms and hurricane impact the Florida peninsula each year, when this tropical system moves ashore, connective systems in rainbands often produce a tornado, despite being violent in nature these tropical thunderstorms produce weaker tornadoes than non-tropical ones.
  • Tornadoes in this region occur between late spring to early fall.strong to violent tornadoes are rare and do not happen outside the US.
  • Tornado alley is ideally situated for the formation of supercell thunderstorms, often producer of F2 or greater scale. around 77 % of the tornadoes of the US are of the scale F0 or F1, and 95% of the tornadoes are below F3 scale.
  • The remaining percent of tornadoes are of the violent type, very few of them (around 0.1 percentage of the total are of F5 type), meaning if 1000 tornados hit the US, 20 will be destructive and 1 will be incredible. 

If you belong to the USA, you must be pretty much familiar with the term tornado, yes the USA is a country which has witnessed numerous tornados over the period of years, and if you don't, leave it upon me I will make you understand this.

Tornado Warning:

  • Tornado Warning is an alert issued by national weather forecasting agencies to warn the public that severe thunderstorms are imminent.
  • It can be issued after the thunderstorm, a funneling cloud is spotted by the public, storm chasers or emergency management. if this happens emergency sirens start blowing if there is any, informing people that tornado is formed or taking form.
  • Issuance of such warning warrants from residential to take emergency action, if its a higher level of alert than a tornado watch, it can be surpassed by even higher alert known as a tornado emergency.
  • The criteria which called for tornado alerts now generally result in a tornado warning with verbiage that warning was issued because the rotation was detected.
  • Tornado alerts were eliminated outright due to the advent of Doppler radars which can spot the formation of cloud earlier than usual weather experts. Radars also removed confusion about the strength and location of the storm.

Tornado Ottawa:

  • 2018 tornado outbreak was a two-day outbreak in the US and Canada, a total of 37 tornadoes were confirmed including long-tracked EF3 that moved along 38 km path from Ontario to Gatineau and EF2 in the appeal of Ottawa.
  • Ottawa tornado was declared one of the 10 most significant weather events of 2018 in Canada, numerous tornadoes hit down in Minnesota on the initial day including high-end EF2 that caused major damage in Morristown.
  • The most significant tornado of made a direct strike on a small community of Dunrobin in the west Ottawa then crossed the Ottawa river, then struck the mont blue residential area in hull sector.
  • The Dunrobin-Gatineau is considered as a high end long tracked Ef3 with pick winds reaching 265 kmph, approximately 25 people were injured, six were taken to a hospital and 5 was incurred life threating injury.

You can check tornado pictures here:

You can see amazing tornado videos here:

If you belong to the USA, you must be pretty much familiar with the term tornado, yes the USA is a country which has witnessed numerous tornados over the period of years, and if you don't, leave it upon me I will make you understand this.

A movie based on the tornado is given in below link :


  • With tremendous speed and long span tornado can turn houses ,vehicles,humans and every sort of thing into debris ,though they are frequent in but not limited to USA , since long history they have been damaging, their unpredictable nature make them even more dangerous ,for readers of USA and Canada I would say stay safe, stay alert and for others I would say you can have breather.
  • Hope you have liked my post, so don't forget to share it with your friends and family and do give us feedback below,  you can contact us for any query/suggestion.