Friday, 22 February 2019

The evolution of TSUNAMI

As you know TSUNAMI is One of the most destructive natural calamities, with its brute force it can destroy from heavy cars to houses in absolutely no time, so let's discuss as to what is the reason of such tsunami as well as its aftermath and some of its past appearances.

As you know TSUNAMI is One of the most destructive natural calamities, with its brute force it can destroy from heavy cars to houses in absolutely no time, so let's discuss as to what is the reason of such tsunami as well as its aftermath and some of its past appearances.


  • The tsunami is also known as a tidal wave or seismic sea wave is generally a displacement of huge water from the ocean, as a result of earthquake, volcanic eruption or underwater explosion
     Tsunami causes:
  • The generation mechanism of the tsunami is the displacement of the substantial volume of water from the ocean due to also of nuclear tests, meteorites, glacier calvings or landslides.
  • it can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms overlying water when a tectonic earthquake occurs under the sea, the water from the deformed area is displaced from the equilibrium position
  • Tsunamis have very small amplitude and very long wavelength, which is why they generally go unnoticed producing only a small swell of approx 300 mm.
  • As it reaches shallower water, it escalates in was found that larger tsunamis that had previously been believed possible could be caused by huge submarine landslides
  • in general landslide generates a displacement in shallower parts of the coastline. conditions such as rapid changes in barometric pressure can displace water enough to cause a train of waves with wavelengths comparable to seismic tsunami wave, but usually with lower energies.
       Tsunami 2004:
  • The Indian ocean earthquake occurred on 26 December, having an epicenter on the northern Sumatra, it was an undersea megathrust earthquake of the magnitude (9.1-9.3), the earthquake was caused by rupture along the fault between Burma plate and the Indian plate.
  • series of waves up to 30m were produced due to an underwater activity which became known as tsunami boxing day, and these disastrous waves killed approximately 227,898 in 14 countries.
  • This caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce particularly in Indonesia, Srilanka, India, and Thailand, the earthquake was observed as the third largest ever and fault duration was highest up to 10 minutes which vibrated planet up to 1 cm.
  • The energy produced on earth's surface was 1.1×1017 joules or 26 megatons of TNT, this energy is equivalent to over 1500 times that of the Hiroshima atom bombs.
  • The shift of mass and the incredible release of energy slightly altered the rotation of the earth, the theoretical model suggests it shortened day length by 2.68 microsecond
  • Indonesia was the worst affected country with the toll of 170,000, the tsunami 2004 caused fatality to as far as South Africa which is 3000 km(sorry it's 8000!) away from the epicenter

Tsunami in Japan 2011:

  • The 2011 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku was a magnitude (9 - 9.1) undersea megathrust earthquake, the epicenter was approximately 70 km east of the Osaka peninsula of Tohoku and hypocenter at an underwater depth of 29 km
  • It was recorded as the most powerful earthquake of Japan and as the fourth most powerful ever since 1900(recording began), the earthquake triggered waves up to 40.5 meters in Miyako and which traveled up to 10 km inland in Sendai
  • It shifted the earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm and 15 cm, the tsunami swept Japanese mainland and killed 15,896, injured 6,157, earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage to roads, railways, and dams collapse somewhere.
  • approximately 4.4 million households were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water, like the 2004 tsunami, the damage by surging water though localized, was far more deadly and destructive than actual quake
  •  video footage of the towns that were worst affected shows little more than piles of rubble with almost no parts left standing, around 230,000 automobiles, and trucks were destroyed or damaged
  • Japan's transport sector also faced severe disruptions, all railway stations in Tokyo were suspended, with 20000 people stranded at major stations across the city, tsunami wave flooded Sendai airport about an hour after the quake.
  • cellular and landline services faced major disruptions in the affected area and across much of Japan due to the surge in the network activity

Tsunami in India:

  • The tsunami arrived in the states of the Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu along the southeast coast of Indian mainland shortly after 9 am around 2 hrs later it arrived in Kerala from the southwest coast
  • Tamil Nadu, Kerala and the union territory of Puducherry were extensively damaged while Andhra was moderately damaged, the tsunami run-up was only about 1.6 m in areas of Tamilnadu shielded by Srilanka island whereas it was around 4-5 m in the area directly across from Sumatra
  • The run-up elevation was about 4.5 m in Kanyakumari, tsunami traveled maximum inland about 2.5 km in Puducherry, the inundation varied from 100-500 m in most areas, the sea walls made in Kerala and Tamilnadu reduced the intensity of waves, however where they were loose fixed, they traveled inland.
  • The worst affected area in Tamilnadu was Nagapattinam district with 6051 fatalities due to 5 m waves, besides that 10 m black muddy waves ravaged the city of Karaikal where 492 lives were lost. given the enormous power the fishing industry suffered great loss, the cost in damage to the transport sector was recorded of tens of thousand.
  • The tsunami effects varied greatly across different coastal areas according to the number of waves, inundation distance and the population density of areas. around 12,405 died,3874 went missing,647,599 were displaced
Tsunami facts:
  • About 80 percent of the tsunamis happen within the Pacific ocean's ring of fire
  • the first wave of the tsunami is not usually strong, successive waves get stronger
  • tsunamis can travel at the speed of 500 miles or 805 miles per hour which is equivalent to the jet plane
  • states which are at greatest risk of a tsunami are California, Hawaii, and Alaska
  • if caught by tsunami it's better not to swim rather its good to hold a floating object and carried away
  • tsunamis retain energy meaning they can travel all across the ocean with minimum energy loss
Tsunami pictures:

Tsunami movie:

What to do during a tsunami

  • Protect yourself from an earthquake
  • get to good hight as far inland as possible
  • watch for tsunami warnings such as a rapid rise in sea level or drain of sea water
  • evacuate don't wait
  • if you are in a boat go out of a sea
  • if you live in a coastal area or regularly visit the one then learn about the  risk in your area
  • sign up for your community's warning system, the emergency alert system and NOAA weather radio also provide emergency alerts.

  • as one of the biggest natural disasters tsunami have distracted many lives and wealth .especially two of the biggest tsunamis struck in a matter of just seven-year span, since then scientists and  experts are more alerts than ever, and they must be so as to reduce the damage of the upcoming one
  • A tsunami with its tremendous energy is certainly can disrupt countries, however, our awareness and pre-alert can reduce the loss we have to incur

  • Hope I have provided suffice information and answers u were looking can contact me on my email for any query or suggestion, give us feedback in a comment section, and also share with ur near and dear ones. have a good day ahead


Wednesday, 20 February 2019

Everything you wanted to know about BLACK HOLE||BLACKHOLE FACTS

  • Very few as mysterious objects as blackhole exist in our universe, due to such incomprehensible nature of characteristics of blackhole we often get curious about the black giant, I am gonna unravel some facts about blackhole which you gonna read, probably for the first time

black hole


Who discovered the black hole ??

  • The idea of blackhole was first conceived by Albert Einstein in his theory of relativity in 1916. the first black hole was discovered in 1971, there are three types of black holes stellar black hole, intermediate black hole, and a supermassive black hole.

How are black holes formed?

  • Due to the bizarre nature of black holes, it was long suspected whether such object exists or it's the mere pathological solution
  • Gravitational collapse is the process from which it all occurs when star's internal pressure is not sufficed enough to handle its own gravity, it occurs due to less fuel is left in the star to maintain its temperature or due to its reception of extra star matter in a way that doesn't increase its temperature.
  • Due to less temperature star can't handle its own gravity and outer layer is starting to blow away , there is variety of stars which can be formed after this depending upon extent to which original star's mass left
  • if the mass of the remnant exceeds 3-4 Mo(Volkoff limit) then no known mechanism is there to stop the implosion and object will inevitably take form of blackhole. 
This artist's concept shows a galaxy with a supermassive black hole at its core. The black hole is shooting out jets of radio waves.
a supermassive black hole

What black hole is made up of ????

  • Blackhole is known as a region of spacetime with extreme gravity from which nothing can escape, NOT EVEN LIGHT.
  • As I told gravity takes over when the black hole is starting to form, the star's outer matter starts to shrink in, it gets compressed to a very little area. once the black hole is formed it continues to absorb the interstellar gas from its surrounding and keeps on  growing
  • This is the primary process through which supermassive blackhole seems to have grown, it has also been observed in the formation of an intermediate black hole present in globular clusters.
  • blackholes can also be merged with one another or with stars which are considered as a reason behind the inception of supermassive black holes.
  • checkout blackhole video here--

 Black hole facts

  • If you fell in blackhole you will be stretched and your death will come before you reach the singularity.
  • the first object considered blackhole was Cygnus x-1, scientists detected radio emissions coming from Cygnus x-1 and hidden inner companion was found and identified as a blackhole
  • miniature black holes are formed after the BIG BANG, the rapid expansion of space initially formed numerous tiny blackholes bit lesser in size as compared to our godfather sun.
  • If a star passes from very closer to black hole it will tear apart.
  • There is a supermassive black hole in the center of most galaxies around which stars revolve 
  • some huge galaxies have two of them and there is a gigantic supermassive black hole in the center of our universe.

Black hole theory

  • Famed astrophysicist Stephen hawking shaken up science world with his new study on the black hole but t is his idea revolutionary ?? some scientists aren't conceived.
  • Hawking's new study - information preservation and weather forecasting for black holes was attempted to solve paradox surrounding how the universe works
  • Hawking's paper is short and doesn't provide detailed information as to what the justification is,  Joseph Polchinski of the Kavli Institute wrote in an email to
  • Hawking believed that light and matter can pass through black hole which termed as a hawking radiation however radiation is so scrambled that no physicist can work backward to understand what fell into blackhole at the first place

  • Black hole near earth

  • To compare distance let me tell you that our nearest star apart from the sun is 4.24 light years away and the diameter of our galaxy Milkyway is 180000 light year.
  • The nearest black hole from our solar system within our galaxy is 3000 light years away which was discovered in 1917.
black hole

Black hole on earth

  • Blackhole is formed in space from dying stars and collision of stars or of such gigantic bodies. blackhole cannot exist on earth because the mass of the earth is relatively too small to stars 
  • so, such formation can't take place on earth or anywhere on the planet or planet-sized body. 
check out blackhole simulation videos to make your understanding more explicit --

check out black hole movie

Black hole pdf 

Black hole quotes

  • "Universe is expanding to infinity without a center in space, how come humans claim a direction to their life ?"
  • "a black hole holds all the colors of the universe"
  • "a black hole not only holds all the colors of the universe, but it also contains the future of mankind within its grasp."


  • Blackholes are very enigmatic by nature, cosmologist has understood many concepts however all details are yet to be understood, they are very powerful and gigantic in size,.
  • so far it is understood that nothing can escape it not even light, but theories of Stephen Hawking have made research interesting, claiming light can escape a black hole.
  • so the picture is not clear yet, many more types of research are yet to come before we completely understood everything about the black giant.
  • HOPE my article have strengthed your conception of the black hole and made your comprehension more lucid.
  • if you liked my article blackhole than give feedback as yes if you don't then comment as no, and to share this with your friends and family
  • if you have any queries or suggestion you can contact me on

Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Best health tips for longevity | how to live longer

  • So, you want to hear it from me, enlisted below are best health tips for longevity that enables you to live longer and stay strong, so let's get started and figure out your query on best health tips for longevity | how to live longer.