Showing posts with label how star is born. Show all posts
Showing posts with label how star is born. Show all posts

Saturday, 16 March 2019

Why the world would end without STARS

The powerhouse with abundant energy, stars from what we all are made up, we all are stardust as per cosmologists and biologists, elements found in our body primarily generated within the star and other celestial structures, in this post we gonna discuss star, star facts, and star patterns, so let's talk why the world would end without stars.

As a child, we used to think star as a fixed luminous point in the night sky, which is a large, remote and incandescent body like the sun.

But as we grew up we come to know stars are huge, way bigger than the sun, though many are smaller than sun too

If there were no sun there were no earth and no organism would have existed on earth, as we get enormous energy from the sun, and also the perfect distance from the sun makes our planet full of life

star


HOW STAR IS BORN ??

A star is born when atoms of light elements are squeezed with enough pressure to undergo from nuclear fusion, all stars are a result of a balance of forces.

The force of gravity compresses interstellar gas until the fusion reaction begin. once the fusion reaction starts, it generates an outward force.

As long as the gravity and fusion force is equal the star will remain stable, clouds of gas are there in billions and trillions of galaxies like ours, these clouds are called a nebula.

The nebula is spread across several light years and contains mass enough to form millions of stars of the size equivalent to our sun and as I said many are way bigger than a sun.

Many of the nebulae are hydrogen and helium however some nebulae contain other gases and some complex molecules as well.

Heavy materials are a result of the destruction of old star known as a supernova, irregularities in the density of gas cause net gravitational pull which draws gas together.

Some astronomers think that gravitational disturbance causes the nebula to collapse, as the gases collect, they lose potential energy, which results in an increase in temperature.

As the collapse continues the temperature increases, the collapsing cloud separates into many smaller clouds each of which may eventually become a star.

The core of the cloud collapses faster than the outer parts and the cloud begins to rotate faster and faster to conserve angular momentum when the core reaches the temperature of about 2000 degrees Calvin.

Ultimately, core reaches a temperature of 10,000 degrees Kelvin, and it begins to look like a star when fusion reactions begin when it has collapsed to about 30 times that of our sun, it becomes a protostar.

STAR LIFE CYCLE

The star's life cycle is determined by its mass the larger the mass the shorter its life cycle, the star's mass is defined by the amount of matter left in its nebula, the gigantic cloud of gas and dust from which it was born.

Over the period of time, the hydrogen gas is pulled together by gravity and begins to spin, as the gas spins faster it heats up and becomes as a protostar.

Eventually, the temperature reaches 15,000,000 degrees and fusion occurs in the cloud's core, the cloud begins to glow brightly, contracts a little and becomes stable it is now main sequence star and will remain in this stage. 

stars

As the main sequence star glows, hydrogen in its core is converted to helium by fusion, when the supply begins to run out and star no longer generates heat by fusion, the core becomes unstable and contracts.

The outer shell which is still hydrogen starts to expand, as it expands it cools and glows red, the star has now reached the red giant phase, its red because it is cooler than it was in the main sequence star phase.

There is a difference in what a star might take shape after red giant phase between a low mass star and high mass star, a massive star will undergo a supernova explosion if the remnant is of 1.4 times to 3 times than sun than it will become a neutron star.

If it is more than 3 times of the sun than gravity will take over nuclear forces and it will compress to form the giant black hole that swallows any energy or matter which comes near it.

STAR NEAR MOON

The bright star most people talk about which is near the moon is not a star, it is planet Venus, that is the second closest planet to the sun, it has changed position over the period of few years, it is clearly visible in early hours.

Venus orbits the sun nearer than the earth thus its revolution time to complete full round is 224.7 days, when it is on the far side of the sun, Venus can't be seen.

But as it comes round the sun getting closer to earth, it becomes brighter and brighter reflection from the sun,  less of the planet is seen as it gets closer to the earth 

But due to being nearer it will seem larger, as it gets closer to us it is visible in the evening, and when it passes its closest point and moves away again it is visible in the morning.

Venus's brightest point is known as its greatest illuminated extent, when it is getting closest to us, without being directly between us and the sun.

This happened on December 2 as venus's waning phase coincided with its largest disc size at this point planet is usually 25 % illuminated. 

STAR PATTERN

Star patterns also known as a constellation are the patterns formed by different star groups, away from city lights on clear, moonless night, the naked eye can see 2000 -3000 stars, as you look at these stars, your mind may group them into shapes.

People and nearly every culture named them as per the shapes they saw, they even invented stories to go with them, for example, the pattern which greeks gave name Orion was also seen by the ancient Chinese.

The chemehuavi native Americans of the California desert saw the same group of stars as a line of sure-footed mountain sheep.

constellation


More accurately a group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky is called asterism, astronomers refer the constellation to the area of the sky.

The IAU divides the sky into 88 constellations with exact boundaries so every place within a space is a constellation, most of the constellations in the northern hemisphere are based on the constellation invented by ancient Greeks.

Whereas most in the southern are based on the names given to them by seventeenth-century European explorers.

STAR FACTS

You cant see millions of stars in dark night

Red is hot and blue is cool is not true for star its opposite is true 

Our sun is a dwarf star 

You can see 20 quadrillion miles at least 

Stars don't twinkle 

The sun is the closest star to us 

Stars are made of the same stuff 

Stars are in perfect balance 

Most stars are red dwarfs 

mass = colour = temprature

Most stars come in multiples 

The massive stars live shortest

As the star is near the end of its life elements like carbon, oxygen starts to form and it changes in color, shape, and size.

There are approximately 200 to 400 billion stars in our milky way.

Stars are usually 1 to 10 billion years old, some starts are as old as our universe approximately 13.8 billion years old.

Binary stars and multi-star systems are two or more stars that are gravitationally linked and rotate around each other.

A brown dwarf is formed if star cant get hot enough to reach nuclear fusion it failed to become a star but is not a planet as it doesn't glow dimly.

MILKY WAY GALAXY

Midway is our galaxy in which our solar system lie, the name describe galaxy's appearance from the earth, hazy band of light is seen formed in a night sky, is formed from the stars which cannot be distracted by the naked eye. 

Our galaxy is barred spiraled galaxy with a diameter between 150,000 to 200,000 light years, it is estimated to be in number 100 to 400 billion stars and more than 100 billion planets.

Our solar system is located at 26,490 light years away from the center of a galaxy, star, and gases at a wide range of distances from the center orbits at 220 km per second.

milkyway


The milky way galaxy as a whole, move at a 600 km per second, the oldest star of the galaxy is as old as our universe, seeing from the earth, an area in a milky way contains 30 constellations. 

Our nearest galaxy is Andromeda, most of the mass of our galaxy is occupied by dark matter, in addition to mass, our galaxy contains interstellar gas comprising 90 % hydrogen and 10 % helium.

With two third of the hydrogen found in atomic form and remaining one third as molecular hydrogen the mass of the gases are 10 to 15 % of the total mass.

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