Showing posts with label greenhouse effect. Show all posts
Showing posts with label greenhouse effect. Show all posts

Thursday, 14 March 2019



greenhouse effect


The trapping of the sun's heat in the planet's lower atmosphere due to a greater transference of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface is called the greenhouse effect

So this trapping of heat warms the earth more than earth would heat without gases responsible for this, they are known as greenhouse gases

amount of greenhouse effect being observed depends upon the radiation which comes down on earth, a temperature of atmosphere and amount of greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere


Earth receives energy in the form of ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared radiation, about 26 % of the energy which earth receives is reflected back by clouds and atmosphere

19% of the energy is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds, most of the remaining is absorbed by the surface of the earth, as the surface of the earth is way cooler than that of the sun, it radiates the waves with long wavelengths than the sun radiates

most of the thermal radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and warms it, the atmosphere also gains the heat sensible and latent heat influxes

the atmosphere radiates both ways upwards and downwards, the part of the downward radiation is absorbed by the surface and it increases the temperature which could not without the atmosphere

an ideally thermal conductive body which is at the same distance as the earth is from the sun would have 5.3-degree centigrade but earth reflects 30 % of the radiation it receives 

the blackbody with such condition would have -18-degree centigrade but earth surface temperature is 14-degree centigrade


the gases in the atmosphere that absorbs the radiation are called greenhouse gases, they are largely responsible for the greenhouse effect which in turn is responsible for global warming 

the most prominent greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide. while there is an abundant amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, but it doesn't absorb infrared radiation

these greenhouse gases are produced by man-made activities such as


Fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil have become an important part of our life, they are used directly and indirectly for producing electricity as well as for transportation

when objects containing carbons burn they produce carbon dioxide, with the increase in population, number of vehicles have also increased this lead to a tremendous escalation in carbon dioxide

other than this electricity-related emissions are higher as we still depend upon coal for electricity production, although other sources are catching we are still very much dependent upon coal



Forests hold much green area of the planet, as we know plants and trees produces oxygen by intaking carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, a process by which plants prepare their food

cutting down the trees for industrialization or for urbanization let to increment of carbon dioxide, and also burning down of those cut trees led to the extra amount of greenhouse gas


Over a period of years, the world has seen a population explosion, due to which there is more demand for food, shelter, and clothes, these all led to an expansion of related industries

which eventually led to more greenhouse gases being emitted, also more population means more demand for electricity  which further causes more fossil fuel burning


Many farming activities include the use of fertilizers such as NPK and DAP, which have nitrogen and nitrogen dioxide within it, that is a major greenhouse gas


Industries which are involved in cement, fertilizers, coal mining, oil extraction causes generation of greenhouse gas, also landfills produce carbon dioxide and methane 






Greenhouse gases are those which absorbs the infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by the earth

main greenhouse gases are water vapor, nitrous oxide, co2, methane, CFCs, HFCs and ozone.the contribution of each gas is determined by the effectiveness of that gas, for example, the direct radiative effect of methane is eighty-four times more over a period of twenty years than the same amount of co2

beside from water vapor which has a residence time of about nine days, greenhouse gases take a long time to leave the atmosphere, co2 has a variable atmospheric lifetime

it is estimated to 30-85 years, it accounts for the gas which is absorbed in an ocean or in other water or vegetation, aside from purely human-produced halocarbons, most greenhouse gases have both human and natural caused sources 


Water vapor is the most potent gas present in the earth's atmosphere but its behavior is different than the others, the primary role of water vapor is not radiative aging but as a climate feedback 

that is as a response within the climate system that influences the system's continued activity, a distinction is there because the amount of water present cannot be directly modified by the human behavior but set instead by air temperature

the warmer the surface the greater the evaporation rate of a surface, increases evaporation leads to more vapor which means greater absorption of radiation


It is the most significant greenhouse gas, sources of it are a volcano, combustion, naturally decaying organic matter, and aerobic respiration by organisms

this is balanced by chemical, physical, biological processes known as sinks, which tend to remove carbon dioxide one of the biggest sinks is natural vegetation, some oceanic processes also act as a sink one of them is solubility pump another is the biological pump

anthropogenic emissions currently account for the annual release of 7 gigatons, these emissions are equal to the 3 percent of emission by natural resources

co2 has consequently accumulated in the atmosphere at the average rate of 1.4 ppm by volume per year between 1959 and 2006 and roughly 2 ppm per year between 2005 and 2018

the natural background level of co2 varies on time scale of millions of years due to slow changes in outgoing through volcanic activity 



 Methane is a second most significant greenhouse gas, radiative forcing produced per molecule by methane is greater than co2, methane is having way lower concentration as compared to co2

its concentration is measured in ppb instead of ppm it has lesser residence time than co2, natural sources of methane include tropical wetlands, oxidizing bacteria that feed on organic material, volcanos, and methane hydrates 

human activities also increase the amount of methane along with co2, the major sources are livestock, rice cultivation, burning of coal, biomass.

it is considered that some amount of increment in methane is responsible for increasing temperature by 4 to 8-degree centigrade


It is different than the naturally occurring o3 and is a result of the air pollution, the primary source is subsidence of stratospheric o3 whereas anthropologic source is photochemical reaction involving carbon monoxide 

the best estimate of radiative o3 is 50 ppb and net radiative forcing due to anthropogenic emission is approximately 0.35 watt per square meter


These gases include nitrous oxide, CFCs, HFCs, halocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide is responsible for 0.16 watt per square meter forcing while fluorinated gases are responsible for 0.34 watt per meter square 

cfc or chloroform carbons are there in refrigerators too


It's just not all about downsides, there are many positive things as well, the greenhouse effect is important because it contributes to the survival of the living organisms of earth 

without the greenhouse effect, earth's temperature of the day could have 134 and of the night could have been -153-degree centigrade, this temperature difference and value of temperature itself could have proved disastrous for many organisms

although moderate greenhouse effect is good for earth whereas escalated effect can prove damaging to living things, vector-borne diseases like dengue and malaria will be widespread in extreme temperature conditions.


Greenhouse gases are naturally produced however humans produce an additional amount of them

without greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect earth's surface temperature could have been -18-degree centigrade

earth naturally takes the half amount of carbon dioxide produced by humans

plants, soil, and water takes up co2, I f this stored for a long time than it is known as a carbon sequestration

carbon dioxide follows the cycle which is beneficial to all plants and living organisms on earth, this is known as the carbon cycle

field crop agricultural practices both emit these gases as well as remove them

carbon is stored in the soil as an organic matter providing nutrients and food for plant growth and microbes

the greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming which increases the frequency of tornados, hurricanes and wider climate change across the world

when microbes break down nitrogen in the oil to meet their nutrition demands a small number of nitrous oxides are produced

greenhouse gases from Canadian dairy cattle have decreased by 21 percent between 1990 and 2009 due to manure management 

cattle produce methane caused by fermentation that occurs in one of the four stomachs known as the men

in Canada, about 8 percent of the total greenhouse gases are made by agriculture

plant a tree or plant they remove these greenhouse gases by photosynthesis

taking public transport instead of your vehicle will decrease the emissions made by you 

all living things including us need nitrogen to build proteins

humans cannot get nitrogen directly from the atmosphere due to its chemical nature

plants have the ability to fix the nitrogen and convert it into a useful form, humans obtain nitrogen by eating plants.

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