Friday, 22 February 2019

The evolution of TSUNAMI

As you know TSUNAMI is One of the most destructive natural calamities, with its brute force it can destroy from heavy cars to houses in absolutely no time, so let's discuss as to what is the reason of such tsunami as well as its aftermath and some of its past appearances.

As you know TSUNAMI is One of the most destructive natural calamities, with its brute force it can destroy from heavy cars to houses in absolutely no time, so let's discuss as to what is the reason of such tsunami as well as its aftermath and some of its past appearances.


  • The tsunami is also known as a tidal wave or seismic sea wave is generally a displacement of huge water from the ocean, as a result of earthquake, volcanic eruption or underwater explosion
     Tsunami causes:
  • The generation mechanism of the tsunami is the displacement of the substantial volume of water from the ocean due to also of nuclear tests, meteorites, glacier calvings or landslides.
  • it can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms overlying water when a tectonic earthquake occurs under the sea, the water from the deformed area is displaced from the equilibrium position
  • Tsunamis have very small amplitude and very long wavelength, which is why they generally go unnoticed producing only a small swell of approx 300 mm.
  • As it reaches shallower water, it escalates in was found that larger tsunamis that had previously been believed possible could be caused by huge submarine landslides
  • in general landslide generates a displacement in shallower parts of the coastline. conditions such as rapid changes in barometric pressure can displace water enough to cause a train of waves with wavelengths comparable to seismic tsunami wave, but usually with lower energies.
       Tsunami 2004:
  • The Indian ocean earthquake occurred on 26 December, having an epicenter on the northern Sumatra, it was an undersea megathrust earthquake of the magnitude (9.1-9.3), the earthquake was caused by rupture along the fault between Burma plate and the Indian plate.
  • series of waves up to 30m were produced due to an underwater activity which became known as tsunami boxing day, and these disastrous waves killed approximately 227,898 in 14 countries.
  • This caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce particularly in Indonesia, Srilanka, India, and Thailand, the earthquake was observed as the third largest ever and fault duration was highest up to 10 minutes which vibrated planet up to 1 cm.
  • The energy produced on earth's surface was 1.1×1017 joules or 26 megatons of TNT, this energy is equivalent to over 1500 times that of the Hiroshima atom bombs.
  • The shift of mass and the incredible release of energy slightly altered the rotation of the earth, the theoretical model suggests it shortened day length by 2.68 microsecond
  • Indonesia was the worst affected country with the toll of 170,000, the tsunami 2004 caused fatality to as far as South Africa which is 3000 km(sorry it's 8000!) away from the epicenter

Tsunami in Japan 2011:

  • The 2011 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku was a magnitude (9 - 9.1) undersea megathrust earthquake, the epicenter was approximately 70 km east of the Osaka peninsula of Tohoku and hypocenter at an underwater depth of 29 km
  • It was recorded as the most powerful earthquake of Japan and as the fourth most powerful ever since 1900(recording began), the earthquake triggered waves up to 40.5 meters in Miyako and which traveled up to 10 km inland in Sendai
  • It shifted the earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm and 15 cm, the tsunami swept Japanese mainland and killed 15,896, injured 6,157, earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage to roads, railways, and dams collapse somewhere.
  • approximately 4.4 million households were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water, like the 2004 tsunami, the damage by surging water though localized, was far more deadly and destructive than actual quake
  •  video footage of the towns that were worst affected shows little more than piles of rubble with almost no parts left standing, around 230,000 automobiles, and trucks were destroyed or damaged
  • Japan's transport sector also faced severe disruptions, all railway stations in Tokyo were suspended, with 20000 people stranded at major stations across the city, tsunami wave flooded Sendai airport about an hour after the quake.
  • cellular and landline services faced major disruptions in the affected area and across much of Japan due to the surge in the network activity

Tsunami in India:

  • The tsunami arrived in the states of the Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu along the southeast coast of Indian mainland shortly after 9 am around 2 hrs later it arrived in Kerala from the southwest coast
  • Tamil Nadu, Kerala and the union territory of Puducherry were extensively damaged while Andhra was moderately damaged, the tsunami run-up was only about 1.6 m in areas of Tamilnadu shielded by Srilanka island whereas it was around 4-5 m in the area directly across from Sumatra
  • The run-up elevation was about 4.5 m in Kanyakumari, tsunami traveled maximum inland about 2.5 km in Puducherry, the inundation varied from 100-500 m in most areas, the sea walls made in Kerala and Tamilnadu reduced the intensity of waves, however where they were loose fixed, they traveled inland.
  • The worst affected area in Tamilnadu was Nagapattinam district with 6051 fatalities due to 5 m waves, besides that 10 m black muddy waves ravaged the city of Karaikal where 492 lives were lost. given the enormous power the fishing industry suffered great loss, the cost in damage to the transport sector was recorded of tens of thousand.
  • The tsunami effects varied greatly across different coastal areas according to the number of waves, inundation distance and the population density of areas. around 12,405 died,3874 went missing,647,599 were displaced
Tsunami facts:
  • About 80 percent of the tsunamis happen within the Pacific ocean's ring of fire
  • the first wave of the tsunami is not usually strong, successive waves get stronger
  • tsunamis can travel at the speed of 500 miles or 805 miles per hour which is equivalent to the jet plane
  • states which are at greatest risk of a tsunami are California, Hawaii, and Alaska
  • if caught by tsunami it's better not to swim rather its good to hold a floating object and carried away
  • tsunamis retain energy meaning they can travel all across the ocean with minimum energy loss
Tsunami pictures:

Tsunami movie:

What to do during a tsunami

  • Protect yourself from an earthquake
  • get to good hight as far inland as possible
  • watch for tsunami warnings such as a rapid rise in sea level or drain of sea water
  • evacuate don't wait
  • if you are in a boat go out of a sea
  • if you live in a coastal area or regularly visit the one then learn about the  risk in your area
  • sign up for your community's warning system, the emergency alert system and NOAA weather radio also provide emergency alerts.

  • as one of the biggest natural disasters tsunami have distracted many lives and wealth .especially two of the biggest tsunamis struck in a matter of just seven-year span, since then scientists and  experts are more alerts than ever, and they must be so as to reduce the damage of the upcoming one
  • A tsunami with its tremendous energy is certainly can disrupt countries, however, our awareness and pre-alert can reduce the loss we have to incur

  • Hope I have provided suffice information and answers u were looking can contact me on my email for any query or suggestion, give us feedback in a comment section, and also share with ur near and dear ones. have a good day ahead



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